Wookieepedia

READ MORE

Wookieepedia
Advertisement
Wookieepedia
This article covers the Canon version of this subject.  Click here for Wookieepedia's article on the Legends version of this subject. 
Aurebesh
The Aurebesh
AurekArial BeshArial CreshArial CherekArial DornArial EskArial EnthArial OnithArial
Aurek Besh Cresh Cherek Dorn Esk Enth Onith
FornArial GrekArial HerfArial IskArial JenthArial KrillArial KrenthArial LethArial MernArial
Forn Grek Herf Isk Jenth Krill Krenth Leth Mern
NernArial NenArial OskArial OrenthArial PethArial QekArial ReshArial SenthArial
Nern Nen Osk Orenth Peth Qek Resh Senth
ShenArial TrillArial TheshArial UskArial VevArial WeskArial XeshArial YirtArial ZerekArial
Sen Trill Thesh Usk Vev Wesk Xesh Yirt Zerek
"Is that backward Aurebesh?"
"It is."
"I can recognize the characters but I can't read it. It looks like a bunch of random letters."
Beaumont Kin and Luke Skywalker studying a Sith holocron[1]

Aurebesh was a writing system comprising 34 letters used to transcribe Galactic Basic Standard, the most spoken language in the galaxy.[2] In the Outer Rim Territories, Aurebesh was sometimes used alongside Outer Rim Basic, another alphabet.[3]

Examples of Aurebesh throughout the galaxy[]

In general[]

Aurebesh was often used inside macrobinoculars, in the Republic Era,[4] the Imperial Era[5] and the New Republic Era.[6]

The credit symbol ( AurebeshSans-Serif credit) resembled an Aurebesh letter resh with two vertical strokes at the top.[7]

Republic Era[]

Aurebesh text could be seen on the screens of various types of technology, including screens in the cockpits of N-1 starfighters,[8] and the Separatist facility known as Skytop Station.[9]

During the Clone Wars, some clone troopers customized their armor with Aurebesh phrases. The back of clone trooper Ponds' helmet had the phrase "SOME GUYS HAVE ALL THE LUCK" written in Aurebesh.[10] Others got Aurebesh tattoos. Clone medic Kix, had the phrase "A GOOD DROID IS A DEAD ONE" tattooed on the side of his head,[11] although the tattoo was eventually covered up when he grew his hair out late in the war;[12] while trooper Sketch had his initial, Senth, tattooed on his forehead.[13] In the same vein, some Low Altitude Assault Transports were personalized with Aurebesh, such as the Spaceward Ho![14] and Lucky Lekku, both of which bore their names,[15] and the Crumb Bomber, which bore the phrase "LAUGH THIS OFF".[15] The patrol transports used on Coruscant were emblazoned with the word "POLICE".[16]

Establishments throughout the galaxy used Aurebesh signs to identify themselves, such as the The Hole and Purple Werm.[17] The Droid Spa on Coruscant used one such sign to show the services it provided. The sign read "OIL CHANGES, RUST REMOVAL", "MEMORY FLUSHING, POLISHING MOTIVATOR REPAIR, DE-FLUTTERING, RESTRAINING BOLT APPLICATION AND REMOVAL, GENERAL MAINTENANCE OVERHAULS, JUNK REMOVAL".[18] Several posters with Aurebesh text hung in Trueping's bar during the Clone Wars, including one for "DJ RANGTHANG," and one for for Sy Snootles (also seen in the bar room) which read "THE SY SNOOTLES SHOW" • "IN PERSON" • "SY SNOOTLES" • "SOMEWHERE ON CORUSCANT" • "FRISAT 12 – 4" • "SOLD OUT".[19]

Technical readouts used by the Galactic Republic during the Clone Wars were also written in Aurebesh.[20]

Wanted posters in the Jedi Archives on Coruscant were written in Aurebesh text.[21] Similarly, bounties in Aurebesh were posted on the walls of Chalmun's Spaceport Cantina, which contained such information as "NIM MINDBEND" – "WANTED": "DEAD" for "KIDNAPPING, THEFT AND MURDER" – "REWARD: 120,000"; OMAR TOGGS – "WANTED": "DEAD" or "ALIVE" for "RACKETEERING AND EXTORTION" – "REWARD: 75,000"; "ZUG TASSIK" – "WANTED": "DEAD" or "ALIVE" for "MASS MURDER" – "REWARD: 800,000"; "SAVAGE OPRESS" – "WANTED" for "FLEEING THE SCENE OF A CRIME" – "REWARD: 550,000".[22]

The electro-proton bomb, attached to Goji and Rod's bomber and dropped during the Battle of Malastare had a warning printed on the nose cone that read "CAUTION ION DETONATOR". The body of the bomb had "CODE SWITCH DESIGNATOR" • "POSITION 1" • "POSITION 2" • "POSITION 3" • "POSITION 4" printed on it and on one of the tail fins, the words "THIS IS FOR YOU DOOKU" were handwritten.[23]

Loubo, the owner of Plop Dribble's, had a tattoo on his right arm of a double-heart that read "MOM" in Aurebesh.[24]

At Hondo Ohnaka's camp on Florrum, a huge piece of superstructure read "HONDO'S SALVAGE" – "PRICES SLASHED" stenciled on it in Aurebesh.[25] Meanwhile, around the time of the Bombing of the Jedi Temple Hangar, protesters carried Aurebesh signs that read "THE JEDI ARE CORRUPT" and "STOP CLONING VIOLENCE!".[26]

Imperial Era[]

Aurebesh wanted posters saw use into the Imperial Era. One such poster for Kanan Jarrus read:[27]

WANTED:
JARRUS, KANAN

SPECIES: HUMAN
GENDER: MALE
HEIGHT: 1.9 M
HAIR: BROWN
EYES: GREEN
LANGUAGE: BASIC
WEAPONS: BLASTER
LIGHTSABER
OCCUPATION: UNKNOWN
LAST KNOWN LOCATION:
OUTER RIM TERRITORIES,
LOTHAL SYSTEM

WANTED FOR:
THEFT OF IMPERIAL SUPPLIES
RESISTING ARREST
ASSAULTING OFFICERS
PILOTING WITHOUT LICENSE



During the Imperial Period, an Imperial officer used a monitor that listed the names of a number of prisoners in Aurebesh. The list of names included LADY M'Arshngton and Cay Ploon Kett.[28] The Empire also used Aurebesh on its propaganda posters, one of which bore the slogan "PROTECTING LOTHAL" – "PROTECTING YOU"[29] Aurebesh text was also included in the TIE/D Defender Elite blueprints stolen by the Spectres.[30]

Jyn Erso's kyber crystal necklace was ingraved with the words "TRUST IN THE[31] FORCE"; these words were also the final ones Jyn's mother said to her.[5]

New Republic Era[]

Episode VII Rebel Alliance Pilot

Aurebesh appears at lower right of the pilot's jacket

Ren, the leader of the Knights of Ren, concealed his face behind a mask, which was featureless aside from a number of red markings, which contained hidden Aurebesh letters spelling the title "REN".[32]

Thirty-four years after the Battle of Yavin, the life vests worn by Poe Dameron and other Resistance pilots read "PULL TO INFLATE", written upside-down so as to be readable to the wearer.[33]

Letters and numerals[]

Letter Name
Meaning
Letter Name
Meaning
Letter Name
Meaning
Letter Name
Meaning
Letter Name
Meaning
Letter Name
Meaning
Aurek Aurek
A
Besh Besh
B
Cresh Cresh
C
Cherek Cherek
CH
Dorn Dorn
D
Esk Esk
E
Enth Enth
Æ
Onith Onith
EO
Forn Forn
F
Grek Grek
G
Herf Herf
H
Isk Isk
I
Jenth Jenth
J
Krill Krill
K
Krenth Krenth
KH
Leth Leth
L
Mern Mern
M
Nern Nern
N
Nen Nen
NG
Osk Osk
O
Orenth Orenth
OO
Peth Peth
P
Qek Qek
Q
Resh Resh
R
Senth Senth
S
Shen Sen
SH
Trill Trill
T
Thesh Thesh
TH
Usk Usk
U
Vev Vev
V
Wesk Wesk
W
Xesh Xesh
X
Yirt Yirt
Y
Zerek Zerek
Z
Credits Credits
AurebeshSans-Serif credit
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5
6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 0 0


Behind the scenes[]

"The Aurebesh is a lot like Boba Fett—it is a facet of the Star Wars phenomenon that had its origin as a cinematic aside, but which has come to be widely embraced, far out of proportion to its humble origins."
―Stephen Crane[34]
Crane Aurebesh sheet

Stephen Crane's original sample sheet of the first incarnation of the Aurebesh

An Aurebesh-like script first appeared in the 1983 movie Star Wars: Return of the Jedi, the last installment in the original trilogy of Star Wars. It could be seen on the monitor readouts on the second Death Star at the beginning of the movie, when Darth Vader's shuttle is scanned while approaching the battle station. Erik Schroeder's decoding of the technical readouts further suggest that this readout is illegible, consisting of lines of character repeats.[35]

In 1993, while writing the Star Wars Miniatures Battles Companion for West End Games' Star Wars Roleplaying Game, Stephen Crane decided to develop an alphabet for gamers to use. Upon receiving Lucasfilm's approval, Crane came up with the "Aurebesh," a 34-letter alphabet, by redrawing many symbols from Return of the Jedi and assigning them each to a letter or pair of letters from the Latin Alphabet. He later added punctuation marks in Imperial Entanglements, a 1996 supplement for the Star Wars Miniatures Battles game. The Imperial Credit symbol (not designed by Crane) was created for the Monopoly Star Wars board game.[34]

The name "Aurebesh" is derived from the first two letters of the Aurebesh alphabet, Aurek and Besh.[34] This is similar to the real world word "alphabet," which comes from the first two letters of the Greek alphabetalpha and beta.[36]

Stephen Crane's alphabet was subsequently adopted in many Star Wars works, and even made its way into the movies. In 1999, a variant style of Aurebesh appeared in Star Wars: Episode I The Phantom Menace, on a readout screen of Anakin Skywalker's Naboo fighter. As Skywalker heads toward the battle, the screen reads: "Anakin turn the ship around and go back home right away."[8] The words on the tractor beam control on the Death Star, originally written in the Latin Alphabet, were changed to Aurebesh for the 2004 DVD release of Star Wars: Episode IV A New Hope and all subsequent releases of the film.[37]

Aurebesh-GMSR

Aurebesh letters and punctuation, from the Legends game accessory Star Wars Gamemaster Screen, Revised

In April, 2014, most stories in which Aurebesh previously appeared were designated "Star Wars Legends," (formerly known as the Expanded Universe), and no longer considered canon.[38] This included all sources which defined the correspondence between the Aurebesh and the Latin Alphabet. However, subsequent canon material has upheld the original West End Games mapping of Aurebesh. These included a "Ghost Crew Identification Card" available on the Disney XD website,[39] and the 2015 children's book Star Wars Rebels: Battle Plans from Darth Vader.[40]

Coca-Cola products are sold in special in-universe Aurebesh designs at the Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge attraction.[41]

Foreign language inserts[]

Some Aurebesh texts contain excerpts from other, real world languages:

German[]

In the Star Wars: The Clone Wars episode "Liberty on Ryloth," an all-Aurebesh Republic monitor includes the text "UND UBERHAUPT,"[42] German for "and anyway."

Italian[]

In the Star Wars: The Clone Wars episode "The Academy," when Soniee and her fellow students break into the Government warehouse, her datapad says "ENTRARE" in Aurebesh,[43] which is Italian for "enter."[44]

Spanish[]

In the Star Wars: Visions episode "T0-B1," the big monitor in Professor Mitaka's laboratory is filled with Aurebesh text. Most of it is written in Spanish; for example, there is "PERMANENCIA DESARROLLO DATOS,"[45] Spanish for "continuation development data"; and "ATMOSFERA MINERALES,"[45] meaning "atmosphere minerals." When T0-B1 continues the professor's work, he fills the monitors with notes. Most of them are a transcription of[45] excerpts from the lyrics of the 2018 song "Malamente" by the Spanish singer Rosalía,[46] but with some spelling errors.[45] For example, one excerpt from the original song reads "Ese cristalito roto yo sentí cómo crujía / Antes de caerse al suelo ya sabía que se rompía,"[46] but the show's version reads "Ese cris talito roto yo sen cmo crujía antes d ecaerse al suelo y asaba que se rompía".[45]

Norwegian[]

One of the lab tech's readouts in The Mandalorian episode "Chapter 22: Guns for Hire" contains two paragraphs written in Norwegian. The first one is reads:[47]

Transcription
English translation[48]

DEN NORSKE SKOGKATTEN ER ET
PERFEKT HUSDYR FOR EN MIDDELS
AKTIV FAMILIE. HVIS DU GIR DEN ET
INNEN

DORS* [sic] KLATRETRE OG MYE
KJAERLIGHET KAN DERE HA EN GOD
VENN I MANGE AAR.

The Norwegian Forest cat is a
perfect pet animal for a moderately
active family. If you give it an
in

door [sic] climbing tree and lots of
love, you can have a good
friend for many years.

*Note that "innendors" (spelled "innendørs" in Norwegian), the Norwegian word for "indoor", has incorrectly been split into two words.

The second paragraph consists of[47] lyrics from the Norwegian national anthem, "Ja vi elsker dette landet" ("Yes, we love this country"):[49]

Transcription, with typos
Correct lyrics[50]
English translation[49]

JA VI ELSKER DETTE
LANDET
SOM DET STIGER FREM
FURET VAER BIT [sic] OVER
VANNET MED DET [sic]
TUSEN HJEM

ELSKER, ELSKER DET A [sic]
TENKER PAA VAR FAR OG
MOR

Ja, vi elsker dette
landet,
som det stiger frem,
furet, værbitt over
vannet, med de
tusen hjem,

elsker, elsker det og
tenker på vår far og
mor

Yes we love this
country,
as it rises forth,
rugged, weathered over
the water, with the
thousand homes,

love it, love it and
think of our father and
mother

Finally, "ALLIANSEN", which is Norwegian for "the alliance,"[48] is written vertically in a different readout.[47]

Punctuation[]

Tech visor Aurebesh

Aurebesh parentheses and slashes on Tech's visor in the Star Wars: The Bad Batch episode "The Crossing", along with regular English colons and an English hyphen

Aurebesh punctuation, originally created for the Legends game accessory Imperial Entanglements,[34] is also used in Star Wars canon. For example, an apostrophe appears on the marquee outside Ziro's Palace in the animated film Star Wars: The Clone Wars,[51] and an Aurebesh exclamation point can be seen in the inscription on the Republic gunship Spaceward Ho! in the Star Wars: The Clone Wars episodes "Storm Over Ryloth"[52] and "Landing at Point Rain,"[53] and the animated film;[51] and in a Star Tours advertisement for Glee Anselm in "Lightsaber Lost,"[54] a sign for the Abafar Junior Dejarik Club in "Missing in Action,"[55] and on the poster The Sport's Greatest Rivalry in "The Rise of Clovis."[56] In the Star Wars: The Bad Batch episode "The Crossing," a scan by Tech's visor results in a reading containing Aurebesh parentheses and slashes.[57]

However, regular English punctuation, which does not match the one created by Stephen Crane, can also be seen in several episodes of Star Wars: The Clone Wars (such as full stops on the display on Cad Bane's security chip bomb in "Holocron Heist,"[58] the hologram projector in Lott Dod's library in "Senate Spy,"[59] Admiral Yularen's intelligence report in "Cat and Mouse,"[60] Ahsoka Tano's board in "The Academy,"[61] and the case files for Sifo-Dyas and his aide in "The Lost One"[62]) and Star Wars Rebels (such as full stops in an advertisement at Nixus Hub 218 in "Brothers of the Broken Horn,"[63] the dismantler droid's scopes in Star Wars Rebels: Steps Into Shadow,[64] a set of blueprints aboard Tiber Saxon's Star Destroyer in Star Wars Rebels: Heroes of Mandalore,[65] and a billboard in a cargo hold in "In the Name of the Rebellion"[66]; while an English colon appears in the blueprint for the TIE/D Defender Elite in "Crawler Commandeers"[67]), as well as the tractor beam control on the Death Star in the 2004 DVD release of Star Wars: Episode IV A New Hope and all subsequent releases of the film.[37]

Three stylized English exclamation points appear on the console of Freya Fenris's racing starfighter, the Red Ace, in the Star Wars Resistance episode "The Voxx Vortex 5000".[68] In addition, when Kanan Jarrus breaks into Fenn Rau's Fang fighter in the Star Wars Rebels episode "The Protector of Concord Dawn," the monitor shows an Aurebesh exclamation point on top of an English one,[69] and the aforementioned scan in Star Wars: The Bad Batch contains regular English colons and an English hyphen, even though the parentheses and slashes are all Aurebesh.[57]

The ampersand (&) does not appear in any Star Wars mappings of Aurebesh; however, a fan-made ampersand, originally created for a fan-made font called Aurabesh,[70] appears in the Star Wars: The Bad Batch episode "Faster," where one of the advertisements at the Safa Toma Speedway says "T&J REPAIR."[71] The ad also appears in Suria space station in the episode "Bad Territory."[72] The Aurabesh font was originally developed by Mike E. Webb in 1996 and can be downloaded online.[70] In the video game Star Wars: Hunters, the letter Enth (AurebeshSans-SerifBold ae) is used to represent an ampersand.[73]

In the episode "Bad Territory," mirror-inverted text reading "[obscured]0% OFF" appears on the wall behind Fennec Shand in Tanda's Cantina.[72] The percent sign (%) does not appear in any Star Wars mappings of Aurebesh either, but appears in the fan-made Aurabesh font.[70]

Alternate numerical system[]

"I can't recall which came first, Stock Ships or Gamemaster Screen Revised, but I worked on both and both have that chart."
―Pablo Hidalgo on Twitter[74]
New Aurabesh numbers

Alternate Aurebesh numerals

Stephen Crane never created numbers for the Aurebesh alphabet, because the Death Star monitors in Return of the Jedi show regular Arabic numerals.[34] However, an unrelated numerical system made up of dots and lines first appeared in the West End Games sourcebook Platt's Starport Guide, which features a graphic called "Current transponder code profile", with the numerals along both axes of a graph. Unlike later appearances, numerals for 0 through 16 are represented.[75] The graph was reused for the West End Games publication Star Wars Gamemaster Screen, Revised,[76] and the West End Games sourcebook Stock Ships.[77][74]

These numerals were digitized in a fan-made font known as New Aurabesh, which was created by Peter Schuster in 1998.[78] and can be downloaded online.[79] While the original West End Games sources represented numerals 0 through 16,[75] later appearances of the numerals follow Schuster's designation, being limited to numerals 0 through 9.

Kessel gate

"D7 X371K" written in Aurebesh over a gate on Kessel in the movie Solo: A Star Wars Story, using alternate Aurebesh numerals originally created for Platt's Starship Guide

Although most canon appearances of Aurebesh use Arabic numbers, the alternative West End Games numerals have also appeared in Star Wars media: 7189, a wall mural in the Capital City of Lothal, uses these numerals and first appears in the Star Wars Rebels short "Entanglement".[80] The 2015 reference book Star Wars: The Force Awakens: The Visual Dictionary contains pictures of the rank insignia of the First Order, with alternate Aurebesh numbers appearing in the insignias for sergeant ("Ro 8") and squad leader ("Hal 4").[2] The "Hal 4" insignia can be seen on Lank Paze in the 2017 movie Star Wars: Episode VIII The Last Jedi, while the "Ro 8" insignia can be seen on Armitage Hux's First Order monitor in the same film. In another scene in the film, the databank of the Libertine, which DJ gains access to after he steals the Star Yacht in Canto Bight, uses these numerals to list prices in the owner's catalog of starfighters for sale.[81]

The 2017 reference book Star Wars: The Visual Encyclopedia presents an Aurebesh font which includes two examples of Aurebesh numbers; 3 and 7, both of which use West End Games' alternate font.[82] During the raid on Kessel in the 2018 film Solo: A Star Wars Story, Qi'ra says, "They're in subsector four, coming up on gate X-3-7-1-K." The film then switches to a shot of Han Solo and Chewbacca coming out a door with a sign at the top, saying "D7 X371K", using the alternate numerals.[83] In The Mandalorian, the numbers numerals can be seen on the console aboard the Razor Crest, and first appear in "Chapter 2: The Child". As first seen in The Book of Boba Fett episode "Chapter 5: Return of the Mandalorian," the numbers 51 and 11 appear on a red monitor on the console of Din Djarin's N-1 starfighter, and on a small blue monitor on the opposite side of the console, which lists every number from 1 to 9. Curiously, the latter is upside-down.[84] In The Mandalorian episode "Chapter 19: The Convert," the monitor on the control panel of a Six-O-Two Mitigator used by the New Republic Amnesty Program, lists every alternative numeral from 1 to 9, representing different voltage levels.[85]

Plazir-15 camera

Security camera footage from Plazir-15 in The Mandalorian episode "Chapter 22: Guns for Hire," using alternative Aurebesh numerals. The caption says "CAMERA 7709-739".

The numerals can also be seen on monitors in Daiyu spaceport in the Obi-Wan Kenobi episode "Part II"[86] and on the blueprints of Fortress Inquisitorius in "Part IV."[87] The numbers also appear on in Star Wars: The Bad Batch. For example, the monitor in Riyo Chuchi's repulsorpod in the Imperial Senate in the Star Wars: The Bad Batch episode "Truth and Consequences," although regular Aurebesh digits also appear on the screen.[88] In the episode "The Crossing," Clone Force 99 member Tech wears a special visor that can be used to scan his surroundings. When used in Cid's mine, the scan results in "IPSIUM DETECTED", followed by a list of alternate numerals.[57]

Dishabesh and Domabesh[]

"It's called domabesh, and was made for Rogue One."
―Pablo Hidalgo[89]
Domabesh font

A representation of the Domabesh font.

For the 2016 film Rogue One: A Star Wars Story, two alternate Aurebesh fonts were created by the art department and were given the production names Dishabesh[90] and Domabesh.[89][90] The fonts were developed at the behest of director Gareth Edwards, who didn't want a Star Wars universe with just one form of text and mostly one font. Dishabesh was re-used for Enfys Nest's battle helmet in the film Solo: A Star Wars Story.[90] Domabesh can be seen in Jedha City, on a Rebel MP's uniform, and Red Twelve's flight helmet, in Rogue One.[5] In 2021, when asked on Twitter, Lucasfilm Story Group member Pablo Hidalgo referred to the script as "Domabesh,"[89] but it still has not been identified in any canon source. According to Hidalgo, Domabesh is thought to be an archaic script, not as ancient as Ur-Kittât, but older than Aurebesh.[91]

Appearances[]

Dishabesh font

A representation of the Dishabesh font. The letters J, Q, X, and Z have not yet been identified, and are therefore left blank.

Wiki-shrinkable This in-universe list is incomplete. You can help Wookieepedia by expanding it.

Non-canon appearances[]

Sources[]

Galactic-Basic-e1443451408574

The 34 letters of Aurebesh

Wiki-shrinkable This in-universe list is incomplete. You can help Wookieepedia by expanding it.

Non-canon sources[]

Notes and references[]

  1. Shadow of the Sith
  2. 2.0 2.1 Star Wars: The Visual Encyclopedia
  3. StarWars "Empire Day" Concept Art Gallery on StarWars.com (backup link) (Slide 2)
  4. StarWars "Ambush" Trivia Gallery on StarWars.com: "The aurebesh [sic] legend at the bottom of Thire's macrobinocular viewplate reads "infrared mode". The top reads "regular mode."" (backup link) (Slide 2)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Rogue One: A Star Wars Story
  6. The-Mandalorian-logo The Mandalorian — "Chapter 9: The Marshal"
  7. Star Wars: Commander
  8. 8.0 8.1 Star Wars: Episode I The Phantom Menace
  9. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "Duel of the Droids"
  10. StarWars-DatabankII Clone Commander Ponds in the Databank (backup link) "A veteran of such battlefields as Geonosis, Ryloth, and Malastare, Ponds had an Aurebesh phrase stenciled on the back of his helmet that read, "some guys have all the luck.""
  11. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "The Deserter"
  12. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "The Bad Batch"
  13. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "The Hidden Enemy"
  14. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "Landing at Point Rain"
  15. 15.0 15.1 StarWars Checklist: 10 Things to Spot in The Clone Wars on StarWars.com (August 10, 2010): "This blue one, labeled the "Lucky Lekku", is seen on one of the gunships that brings the clones to Teth. (A "lekku" is a tentacle hanging from a Twi'lek's head). This one, of a Kowakian monkey lizard, is seen in the hangar bay of the ship Obi-Wan Kenobi lands on after returning from Tatooine. It says "Laugh This Off!"" (content now obsolete; backup link) (Note that the guide erronously says "Laugh this off!" with an exclamation point)
  16. StarWars To Catch a Jedi Trivia Gallery on StarWars.com (backup link) (Slide 5)
  17. StarWars "Holocron Heist" Trivia Gallery on StarWars.com: "Among the signage seen on the rather seedy buildings of the Coruscant underworld is an establishment called "The Hole," and "Purple Wer"." (backup link) (Slide 4) (Note that the Trivia Gallery erroneously says "PURPLE WER"; that is because there is no light in the last symbol on the neon sign; making "WERM" look like "WER")
  18. StarWars "Evil Plans" Trivia Gallery on StarWars.com: "The signage outside the droid spa promises "oil changes, rust removal, memory flushing, polishing, motivator repair, de-fluttering, restraining bolt application and removal, general maintenance overhauls, junk removal" while the signs inside promise "recharge, repolish, repair" and "refit."" (backup link) (Slide 5)
  19. StarWars "Deception" Trivia Gallery on StarWars.com: "Among the posters seen in the bar's back room where Hardeen sleeps is one for DJ Rangthang, one for Sy Snootles, a Felucian pin-up, and a travel poster for Pantora. In the corridor leading to the room is a poster for a "Miss Theelin" beauty pageant." (backup link) (Slide 4)
  20. StarWars "Downfall of a Droid" Trivia Gallery on StarWars.com: "The Atte Rul3z text seen in "Rookies" appears once again (though, technically, this one came first... and fits the context quite well), this time on Ahsoka's tactical screen aboard the Resolute. There's some additional text underneath too that says "Take That Grievous"." (backup link) (Slide 6)
  21. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "Lightsaber Lost"
  22. StarWars "Revenge" Trivia Gallery on StarWars.com: "Among the bounties listed are: Nim Mindbend, a Siniteen, wanted dead for 120,000 credits for kidnapping, theft and murder; Omar Toggs, a Rodian, wanted dead or alive for 75,000 credits for racketeering and extortion; and Zug Tassik, a Trandoshan, wanted dead or alive for 800,000 for mass murder. Though the hunters say Savage is worth a million credits, his on-screen bounty only lists 550,000. His warrant lists "fleeing the scene of a crime."" (backup link) (Slide 2)
  23. StarWars "The Zillo Beast" Trivia Gallery on StarWars.com: "The electro-proton bomb (called the ion bomb during production) is covered with Aurebesh lettering: official red print say such things as "Caution Ion Detonator" and "Code Switch Designator" while a hand-scrawled notation on the fin says "This is for you Dooku." (backup link) (Slide 3)
  24. StarWars "Brothers" Trivia Gallery on StarWars.com: "Loubo has a tattoo on his right arm of a double-heart that says "MOM"." (backup link) (Slide 7)
  25. StarWars Revival Trivia Gallery on StarWars.com: "In the background of Hondo's camp is a huge piece of superstructure with the Aurebesh words, "HONDO'S SALVAGE - PRICES SLASHED," stenciled on it." (backup link) (Slide 6)
  26. StarWars "Sabotage" Episode Guide | The Clone Wars on StarWars.com: "In addition to an image of a crossed-out clone trooper, the Temple protestor signs say "The Jedi are corrupt," and "Stop cloning violence."" (backup link) (Slide 8)
  27. StarWars "Rebel Resolve" Concept Art Gallery on StarWars.com: "Kanan hologram illustration by Amy Beth Christenson." (backup link) (Slide 3)
  28. Rebels-mini-logo Star Wars Rebels — "Rebel Resolve"
  29. StarWars "An Inside Man" Behind-the-Scenes Gallery on StarWars.com (backup link) (Slide 5)
  30. StarWars Crawler Commandeers Trivia Gallery on StarWars.com: "The TIE defender elite technical specifications read, in Aurebesh, "Technical Readouts Contained in this transmission Have Been Rated Top Secret BY IMPERIAL COMMAND: EYES ONLY."" (backup link) (Slide 3)
  31. StarWars-DatabankII Jyn's Kyber Pendant in the Databank (backup link)
  32. The Rise of Kylo Ren 1
  33. Star Wars: Episode VII The Force Awakens
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 Aurebesh Soup: Recipe for a Star Wars Font Phenomenon (English) by Stephen Crane on Echo Station (October 21, 2000): "The evolution of the Star Wars alphabet told by the guy who designed the font for West End Games." (archived from the original on May 20, 2016)
  35. Editoral: What Does That Screen Say? The Discovery on Erikstormtrooper's Imperial Gallery (archived from the original on December 17, 2021)
  36. alphabet on Encyclopædia Britannica: "The word alphabet, from the first two letters of the Greek alphabet—alpha and beta (...)" (archived from the original on January 21, 2022)
  37. 37.0 37.1 Star Wars: Episode IV A New Hope
  38. StarWars The Legendary Star Wars Expanded Universe Turns a New Page on StarWars.com (backup link)
  39. Disney Rebel Resistance Kit on Disney.com (content now obsolete; backup link)
    Ghost Crew Identification Card (English) (PDF) on Disney XD: "Translate Aurebesh (official Lothal language) using the guide on the back side of the card" (archived from the original on March 19, 2023)
  40. Star Wars Rebels: Battle Plans from Darth Vader
  41. First Look: Aurebesh Coke Coming To 'Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge', Served In Reclaimed Thermal Detonator Packaging by Sciretta, Peter on Slashfilm (April 13, 2019) (archived from the original on May 15, 2021)
  42. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "Liberty on Ryloth"
  43. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "The Academy"
  44. StarWars The Academy Trivia Gallery on StarWars.com: "Once Soniee slices through the lock on the warehouse, her computer screen says "Entrare," which is Italian for "enter."" (backup link) (Slide 6)
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 45.3 45.4 VisionsCite Star Wars: Visions — "T0-B1"
  46. 46.0 46.1 MALAMENTE (Cap.1: Augurio) on genius.com (archived from the original on April 17, 2022)
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 The-Mandalorian-logo The Mandalorian — "Chapter 22: Guns for Hire" (Note that the top line in the first Norwegian paragraph is only seen from behind, and is therefore mirror-inverted; while the entire second Norwegian paragraph is only seen clearly from behind; when it is seen from the front, it is too blurry to decipher)
  48. 48.0 48.1 Translated by user: Nightlily, a native speaker of Norwegian
  49. 49.0 49.1 What is the national anthem of Norway, and what are the lyrics in English? on Classic FM (February 4, 2022): "Norway's official national anthem is 'Ja, vi elsker dette landet' ('Yes, we love this country') (...) It has been in use since the mid-1860s, but wasn't officially recognised as the nation's national anthem until just a few years ago in 2019. (...)

    Yes, we love this country
    as it rises forth,
    rugged, weathered, over the water,
    with the thousands of homes, —
    love, love it and think
    of our father and mother" (archived from the original on July 5, 2022)
  50. Ja, vi elsker dette landet on genius.com: "Ja, vi elsker dette landet,
    som det stiger frem,
    furet, værbitt over vannet,
    med de tusen hjem, —
    elsker, elsker det og tenker
    på vår far og mor" (archived from the original on October 23, 2022)
  51. 51.0 51.1 Star Wars: The Clone Wars film
  52. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "Storm Over Ryloth"
  53. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "Landing at Point Rain"
  54. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "Lightsaber Lost"
  55. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "Missing in Action"
  56. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "The Rise of Clovis"
  57. 57.0 57.1 57.2 TBBtemplate Star Wars: The Bad Batch — "The Crossing"
  58. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "Holocron Heist"
  59. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "Senate Spy"
  60. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "Cat and Mouse"
  61. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "The Academy"
  62. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars — "The Lost One"
  63. Rebels-mini-logo Star Wars Rebels — "Brothers of the Broken Horn"
  64. Star Wars Rebels: Steps Into Shadow
  65. Star Wars Rebels: Heroes of Mandalore
  66. Rebels-mini-logo Star Wars Rebels — "In the Name of the Rebellion"
  67. Rebels-mini-logo Star Wars Rebels — "Crawler Commandeers"
  68. SWResistanceLogo Star Wars Resistance — "The Voxx Vortex 5000"
  69. Rebels-mini-logo Star Wars Rebels — "The Protector of Concord Dawn"
  70. 70.0 70.1 70.2 Aurabesh (free) on aurekfonts.github.io (archived from the original on January 20, 2023)

    TwitterLogo AurekFonts (@AurekFonts) on Twitter (July 24, 2020): "In 1996 Mike E Web created a fan font for Aurebesh, called "Aurabesh." https://aurekfonts.github.io/?font=Aurabesh Because this was created before the above punctuation was made, Web went ahead and added his own custom punctuation, including the first Aurebesh ampersand!" (backup link)
  71. TBBtemplate Star Wars: The Bad Batch — "Faster"
  72. 72.0 72.1 TBBtemplate Star Wars: The Bad Batch — "Bad Territory"
  73. Star Wars: Hunters
  74. 74.0 74.1 TwitterLogo Pablo Hidalgo (@pabl0hidalgo) on Twitter (June 10, 2022): "I can't recall which came first, Stock Ships or Gamemaster Screen Revised, but I worked on both and both have that chart." (backup link)
  75. 75.0 75.1 Platt's Starport Guide
  76. Star Wars Gamemaster Screen, Revised
  77. Stock Ships
  78. "New Aurabesh": A Casual Interview with Peter Schuster on Ko-fi (May 19, 2020) (archived from the original on May 9, 2022)
  79. New Aurabesh (free) on AurekFonts (archived from the original on May 9, 2022)
  80. Rebels-mini-logo Star Wars Rebels — "Entanglement"
  81. Star Wars: Episode VIII The Last Jedi
  82. Star Wars: The Visual Encyclopedia
  83. Solo: A Star Wars Story
  84. The Book of Boba Fett logo The Book of Boba Fett — "Chapter 5: Return of the Mandalorian"
  85. The-Mandalorian-logo The Mandalorian — "Chapter 19: The Convert"
  86. Obi-Wan Kenobi new series logo Obi-Wan Kenobi — "Part II"
  87. Obi-Wan Kenobi new series logo Obi-Wan Kenobi — "Part IV"
  88. TBBtemplate Star Wars: The Bad Batch — "Truth and Consequences"
  89. 89.0 89.1 89.2 TwitterLogo Pablo Hidalgo (@pabl0hidalgo) on Twitter (May 30, 2021): "It's called domabesh, and was made for Rogue One." (backup link)
  90. 90.0 90.1 90.2 TwitterLogo Glyn Dillon (@glyn_dillon) on Twitter (March 27, 2019): "The fonts were made at Gareth's request for R.O. he didn't want a universe with just one text (and mostly one font). They were designed by the art dept graphics team. I was able to use them in any designs that needed text. Dishabesh just seemed to suit Enfys more than the others." (content now obsolete; backup link)
    TwitterLogo Alban Leloup (@LelalMekha) on Twitter (March 27, 2019): "Dishabesh, eh? That's the actual name they gave it? And the one in this picture is "Domabesh," right?" (backup link)
    TwitterLogo Glyn Dillon (@glyn_dillon) on Twitter (March 27, 2019): "Correct" (content now obsolete; backup link)
  91. TwitterLogo Pablo Hidalgo (@pabl0hidalgo) on Twitter (June 6, 2021): "I don't know how that was decided; but I do know Domabesh is thought to be archaic, with its usage on Jedha. Not as ancient as the McQuarrie script, but much older than run-of-the-mill Aurebesh at least." (backup link)

External links[]

Advertisement