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"It is an honor to stand before you, for you represent the freedom and the future of our galaxy. The once-great Republic and Jedi Order have become victims of their own ambitions, and the Supreme Chancellor is no more than a pawn of corporate monopolies. As a people you called out for change, you called out for leadership, and I humbly answered that call. Together we challenged the system. We asked for equality. And how were we met? With war! The Jedi secret army of clones was revealed, and their treachery was far greater than we could have imagined! Countless living beings—these clones the Jedi created—have been sent to their deaths, while we sacrifice mainly droids. Our soldiers of flesh and blood are willing participants! They are your fathers and sons, mothers and daughters, who fight not because they were grown and designed to do so, but because they know in their hearts that they are fighting for a just and noble cause!"
―Head of State Dooku addresses a gala of Separatist dignitaries[16]

The Confederacy of Independent Systems, abbreviated to CIS, and otherwise known as the Separatist Alliance, the Separatist State, the Separatist Confederacy, or simply referred to as the Separatists, was a confederate alliance formed from thousands of sovereign star systems of the Inner Rim, Mid Rim and Outer Rim Territories which had withdraw as member-worlds from the Galactic Republic, whom the Confederacy had opposed from 24 BBY until 19 BBY following a period of political turmoil. Established by fallen Jedi Master Count Dooku of the planet Serenno, who served as the government's Head of State, the Confederacy was founded from a belief of excessive taxation and corruption within the Republic's Galactic Senate, as well as a general feeling of dissatisfaction towards and neglect by the Republic-centric Core Worlds region of the galaxy. Furthermore, the government was secretly supported by several major galactic corporations which formed the Confederacy's legislative council, including the Trade Federation, led by Viceroy Nute Gunray; the Stalgasin hive, led by Archduke Poggle the Lesser; the InterGalactic Banking Clan, headed by Chairman San Hill; the Techno Union, led by Foreman Wat Tambor; the Commerce Guild, led by Presidente Shu Mai; the Corporate Alliance, led by Magistrate Passel Argente; and the Retail Caucus.

In 24 BBY, a political crisis had begun which led to escalating tensions between the reigning Republic and the rising Confederacy, established in a galaxy-wide secessionist movement orchestrated by Dooku. Many within the Confederacy, including its parliament of senators, had no desire in fighting their adversaries, as they sought to be free of what they saw as the corruption and tyranny of the Republic. However, in 22 BBY, both governments and their respective military forces became enmeshed in the pan-galactic Clone Wars that had erupted on the planet Geonosis, the first conflict in a millennium.

In the following three years of the war, which had raged across the entire galaxy on several fronts, the Confederacy made rapid attempts to cease the Republic's influence. However, unknown to the galaxy or either governments, the war was a ploy designed by the Dark Lord of the Sith, Darth Sidious, who led both the Confederacy through Dooku as his Sith Master, and, secretly, the Republic as Supreme Chancellor Sheev Palpatine. The Sith Lord had managed to deceive both parties. By the third year of the war, the Confederacy had suffered several major defeats in the Outer Rim Sieges as the conflict began to approach its end, while the government had lost a third of its navy in the decisive Battle of Coruscant, which had resulted in the death of Dooku, the Confederacy's leader, though they were unaware that Dooku's death was actually masterminded by Sidious.

In the days following their defeat at Coruscant, Supreme Martial Commander of the Separatist Droid Armies, General Grievous, was killed on the planet Utapau, as well as the government's Executive Separatist Council, which was slaughtered on the planet Mustafar. Subsequently after, the Confederacy's droid army was deactivated following the council's deaths, which led to the rapid collapse of the confederate government as the war came to an end. With the war's end, the corporations that supported the Confederacy's cause became nationalized, and its remaining star systems were absorbed into the Republic's successor state, the Galactic Empire, ruled by Galactic Emperor Sheev Palpatine, while elements of the Confederacy military remained active and fragmented into several holdouts throughout the galaxy.


Early foundations[]

"The Republic is not what it once was."
―Senator Palpatine of Naboo on the declining state of the Senate and Republic[17]

For a millennium, the galaxy had been governed by the Galactic Republic from the planet Coruscant in the Core Worlds, and was in turn overseen by the Galactic Senate, which was led by an elected Supreme Chancellor. With assistance from the Jedi Order, who acted as peacekeepers, the Republic and thereby the galaxy had not endured conflict for an entire millennium. However, as the Republic carried on, the government began to become both weak and corrupt.[1]

During this era of peace, heightening political tensions arose within the Republic a decade before the Clone Wars, such as when a group of usurpers on the planet Halcyon became discontent with the world's membership and wanted their world to be able to manage its own affairs. They kidnapped several members of Halcyon's planetary leadership and held them in a remote fortress where they prepared for assault while attempting negotiation with their hostages. Internal negotiations failed and led the Senate to eventually authorize the Jedi Order to intervene on Halcyon as mediators and enforcers if necessary.[14] By 28 BBY,[18] there was a growing number of senators in the Galactic Senate who valued loyalty to the planet they represented over loyalty to the Republic as a whole. These senators argued it was impossible to truly remain objective when discussing the entire galaxy.[19]

Count Dooku started the Separatist movement.

The Invasion of Naboo by the Trade Federation exposed the unwillingness and inability of the Senate to resolve the crisis, which ended only after the Gungans and Royal House of Naboo united and forcibly ended the occupation. This lack of action was a result of years of corrupt and ineffectual governance by the Republic that had became mired in bureaucracy and layers upon layers of increasingly complex legal precedents, treaties, and obligations. The commerce guilds and trading corporations had also become disillusioned after laws were passed that would introduce taxes affecting all significant trade routes, implemented such that they would have the greatest impact on the poorer outlying star systems. These worlds were often forced into accepting one-sided deals and refused military protection, as the Republic continued to prioritize honoring centuries old agreements predating the admission of outlying planets.[14]

Compounding this, the outlying systems and Rimward trade routes were plagued by pirates, hijackers and slavers. Due to the refusal of the Republic to create a military to police those sectors, the Judicial Department was completely overwhelmed, and could not adequately protect either the worlds along those trade routes, or the cargo vessels that traversed them. This forced outlying systems to begin creating their own militias to deal with the pirates, with the Outland Regions Security Force being foremost among them. Gridlock in the senate grew, as the number of votes needed to pass any type of legislation turned it increasingly into a place where senators bartered favors, earmarks, and votes for personal power without regard for their constituencies or the greater good of the Republic. Some began to believe that any attempt at change would require radical thinking and extreme actions, leading to discussions of secession from the Republic.[14][20]

Secession from the Republic[]

"I am committed to the idea of a galaxy ruled by an enlightened leader, with laws that apply universally—not one set for the Core Worlds, another for the Outer Rim worlds."
"An autocracy, guided by the count of Serenno."
"I am ambitious, but not to that degree.
―Count Dooku and Governor Wilhuff Tarkin of Eriadu, during their final dinner together before the onset of the Clone Wars[14]

A pamphlet for Reena University highlighting Dooku's Independent Movement for Self-Determination, by Ansibella Dellu.

The first declaration of secession could be traced back to Count Dooku's Raxus Address, when the count denounced the Galactic Republic as a futile enterprise that was hopelessly burdened by corruption and favoritism toward the Core Worlds. Following the address, Dooku founded the Confederacy of Independent Systems and began the Separatist Crisis.[11] In order to do this, he had commandeered a HoloNet-relay station in the Raxus system, after which some believed he was merely one step ahead of Republic assassins. The fallen Jedi Master's words of inflammatory rhetoric would find receptive audiences among young intellectuals in Mid and Inner Rim universities. Both charismatic and exuding confidence, Dooku's message rallied thousands of individuals by recounting decades of experience within the Republic government and publicizing its hypocrisies, corruption and ineffectiveness.[21][14]

Dooku's rebellious message mesmerized young psyches and spurred them into political activism. As the galactic crisis grew more and more heated, Dooku's appearances grew rarer and were announced with much shorter notice, with his message often spurning violence on polarized worlds. Thousands of disgruntled star systems ultimately seceded from the Republic and fully embraced the newly-created Confederacy of Independent Systems' fiery message of resistance. The idea that the Republic was distant, dispassionate, corrupt, and unworthy of membership ultimately marshaled disgruntled systems into a new galactic government. The agrarian world of Ukio found itself questioning what value it reciprocated for being the breadbasket of the Core Worlds, and after citing a litany of neglect, senatorial representatives of the Abrion sector tendered their articles of secession along with other worlds in the galaxy's hinterlands.[21] The Confederacy also sought to gain prosperous Outer Rim world of Eriadu.[14]

With its location at the confluence of the Hydian Way and Rimma Trade Route, Dooku needed Eriadu's allegiance to control the Greater Seswenna and effectively collapse the Core back onto itself, undoing millennia of galactic exploration, conquest, and colonization. After negotiations and attending dinners with Eriadu's then-Governor Wilhuff Tarkin, the attempt to claim Eriadu's loyalty would fail, as Tarkin refused, believing that an ineffective yet unified galaxy was better than a fractured one.[14][22] Thanks to Tarkin and several other holdouts, Dooku was unable to have the economic monopoly needed to force the Republic into negotiations.[11]

Dooku and the Separatist Council prior to the Clone Wars.

With the Separatist Crisis intensifying as more systems pledged loyalty to the Dooku separatist-government across the galaxy, causing uncertainty and fears that the Republic would be split into two, the Senate of the Republic moved towards the passage of the Military Creation Act, which would establish centralized armed forces to protect the thousand-year-old democracy for the first time. Meanwhile, Dooku had promised the Viceroy Nute Gunray that he would assassinate Senator Padmé Amidala of Naboo if he signed Dooku's treaty. The Viceroy accepted the offer, and Dooku dispatched Jango Fett to carry out Amidala's assassination.[1]

Despite the failure of Fett's mission, Dooku was able to persuade the Trade Federation, the InterGalactic Banking Clan, the Techno Union, the Commerce Guild, and the Corporate Alliance to all sign a treaty on Geonosis and join together as the Executive Separatist Council. After pursuing Fett to Geonosis, Jedi Knight Obi-Wan Kenobi discovered Dooku's plot, and also learned that it was Gunray who ordered the assassination of Amidala. He was captured shortly thereafter and imprisoned by Dooku, but not before sending a message to the Jedi Council relating what he had discovered. Meanwhile, tensions between the Republic and the -movement peaked after the Republic learned of the size and significance of its army of battle droids, motivating the Senate to grant emergency powers to the Supreme Chancellor of the Republic, a position that was then occupied by[1] Sheev Palpatine,[14] the alter ego of Sith Lord Darth Sidious.[1]

During the attempted execution of Obi-Wan Kenobi, Anakin Skywalker, and Senator Amidala on Geonosis, a team of two hundred Jedi were sent to rescue the trio. The Jedi were attacked by a host of battle droids during the attempt, and were corralled into an arena. With the battle turning against the Jedi, Dooku gave the remaining Jedi forces a chance to lay down their arms, a choice which Mace Windu declined. In the next few moments, several Acclamator-class assault ships arrived over the arena, and engaged droid forces on the planet's surface, starting the deadly Clone Wars.[1]

The Clone Wars[]

Attacking the Republic[]

"The Jedi have amassed a huge army!"
"That doesn't seem possible. How could the Jedi come up with an army so quickly?"
―Nute Gunray and Count Dooku[1]

The Separatist Droid Army during the Battle of Geonosis.

The arrival of the clones sparked a full-scale battle on Geonosis, with both sides taking heavy losses. Eventually however, the clone army began to gain the upper hand. This forced Poggle to order his soldiers to retreat and hide, but before he joined them, he turned over plans to the Ultimate Weapon—a secret project he had been contracted to build by the Separatists—to Count Dooku. As the battle raged on, Kenobi and Skywalker caught up to Dooku and tried to prevent his escape by engaging in a lightsaber duel, however they were defeated by Dooku with relative ease. Grand Master Yoda came to their rescue and engaged Dooku in a lightsaber battle. After realizing that he was outmatched by Yoda, Dooku fled Geonosis and the Separatist leadership retreated. Though they had suffered a defeat in battle, the goal of the Sith had been fulfilled; the Clone Wars had begun.[1] Shortly the CIS retreat and vacated its first capital world of Geonosis,[9] the Separatists began to seize control of the major hyperspace lanes, separating the Republic from its army.[23]

At some point, the Confederacy launched an attack on Phindar.[14] With the outbreak of hostilities, many worlds either declared openly for the Separatists or declared neutrality, declining to support either side. Some of the neutral worlds banded together into a loose alliance, The Council of Neutral Systems,[24] which also worked to establish mutual negotiation as an advisory group,[25] not a breakaway government.[11] Both sides negotiated with the neutral worlds, with the Republic trying to bring worlds back into the fold willingly if they had not declared for the Separatists due to fears that taking action against ostensibly non-hostile worlds would only increase sympathy for the separatist cause.[23][24]

Armored Assault Tanks advance through Crystal City on Christophsis.

The war proceeded on many fronts. A force led by Asajj Ventress and General Whorm Loathsom succeeded in capturing Christophsis. After taking the planet, they targeted a small relief-force led by Senator Bail Organa,[26] but the Confederate occupation was eventually defeated by Jedi Generals Anakin Skywalker, Obi-Wan Kenobi, Skywalker's Padawan, Commander Ahsoka Tano, and their clone troopers. Later on Teth in Wild Space, the Separatists hatched a plot to deny the Jedi the alliance with the Hutt Clan that they so desperately needed and to establish an alliance with the Hutts themselves. Republic forces attempted to save Rotta, the infant son of crime lord Jabba the Hutt, from the Confederacy, who planned to kill the Huttlet and lay the blame on the Jedi Order. However, Skywalker and Tano effected a rescue of the Huttlet from Teth, and return him to Tatooine, thus gaining the support of the Hutts for the Republic.[23]

After the annihilation of the Republic garrison, Ryloth was occupied and blockaded by the Separatist Droid Army. The army was led by Emir Wat Tambor, who oversaw the occupation from the city of Lessu. During the occupation, much of Ryloth was pillaged by the droid army on orders from the Emir. CIS forces were repeatedly attacked by a group of Twi'lek freedom-fighters led by Cham Syndulla, but suffered minimal losses. Eventually, the Republic Army assembled a force to liberate the planet, a goal they accomplished after much heavy fighting. The Republic captured Tambor, but his tactical droid escaped with many of the valuables he had looted from the Twi'leks.[27][28]

The Malevolence superweapon.

However, soon the Confederacy would reveal during the Malevolence campaign[29] its massive new superweapon known only as the Malevolence, a Subjugator-class[30] heavy cruiser,[31] that was commanded by Supreme Commander General Grievous. It worked by firing a powerful ion cannon to disable enemy ships before destroying them with a barrage of more-conventional cannonfire. The ship gained the attention of the Republic after destroying the fleet of Jedi General Plo Koon in the Battle of Abregado. Koon was marooned in an escape pod, and rescued by General Skywalker. The Separatist Head of State then ordered Grievous to use the ship to attack an unarmed Republic medical center near the Ryndellia system. Having been alerted to the impending attack, the Republic dispatched a fleet to rescue the medical station. After a fierce fight, the ship was finally destroyed when Skywalker tampered with the ship's navicomputer and crashed it into a nearby moon.[32][33]

The Grand Army of the Republic detonates a prototype Electro-proton bomb on Malastare.

The Confederacy would attempt to gain Malastare, which was of strategic importance to both the Republic and the Separatist forces, due to the abundance of natural resources on the planet. The Republic was keen to sign a treaty with the Malastare leadership – however, their plans were put on hold while the Separatist Droid Army invaded the planet. Due to the low number of military forces on the planet, the Republic forces were quickly overwhelmed and, in the face of certain defeat, authorized the use of an experimental Electro-proton bomb. In the ensuing blast, the droid army was shut down, and the battle won for the Republic. The leaders of Malastare then proceeded to sign the treaty with the Republic.[34] However, a setback occurred when the plan by the InterGalactic Banking Clan and the Separatists to build massive new droid foundries on Geonosis was discovered by the Galactic Republic,[35] who launched a second major planetary invasion of Geonosis to shut down the foundries that Archduke Poggle the Lesser had built there.[36]

After their discovery on Cato Neimoidia,[35] the Republic dispatched a massive detachment of clones to retake Geonosis and stop the production of battle droids. Following a difficult landing, the Republic forces managed to establish a landing zone at Point Rain near the factories. The Republic then disabled the factories' ray shield, making way for the rest of the clone troopers to safely land. As Poggle attempted to retake Point Rain, the main droid-foundry was targeted by the Jedi, who launched a major offensive against the factory. Unknown to the Separatists, the main assault was actually a distraction that would enable Padawans Ahsoka Tano and Barriss Offee to infiltrate the foundry and destroy the reactor core, thus blowing the factory up from the inside. Following this victory, the Jedi proceeded to destroy the remaining droid foundries on Geonosis, stopping the Separatist plans. Although the droid foundries had been destroyed, Poggle remained at large for a time,[36] until he was captured in the catacombs underneath Progate Temple.[37]


In order to gain much -needed support for their attempt at taking over Mandalore, the Death Watch briefly allied themselves with the Confederacy of Independent Systems. Mandalorian commandos performed sabotage-missions for the Separatists against Republic targets. One such mission involved a commando attempting to sabotage a Republic cruiser – the Death Watch commando was captured, but rather than surrender and submit to questioning, he committed suicide.[24] His actions, in addition to false rumors, led many in the Republic to believe that Duchess Satine Kryze, the leader of the New Mandalorian government and head of the Council of Neutral Systems, was training a Mandalorian army for the Separatists.[38]

The Jedi Council dispatched Jedi Knight Obi-Wan Kenobi to Mandalore to meet with Satine and investigate the rumors. At first, the Duchess and her advisers discounted any Mandalorian involvement until Kenobi showed holographic recordings of the Death Watch-saboteur. Having no other choice, she reluctantly revealed rumors of the Death Watch's return. The rumors were later proven when a Death Watch commando bombed the memorial shrine in the New Mandalorian capital of Sundari before committing suicide when Kenobi attempted to apprehend him. Left at the bomb-site was a holographic representation of the Death Watch symbol, further highlighting the group's return. During these events the leader of death watch — Pre Vizsla — communicated with Count Dooku who revealed his strategy. He would force the Republic into sending peacekeeping-forces to Mandalore. Dooku hoped this would lead the populace to view the Republic as invaders, and turn to the Death Watch to liberate them.[38]

When Satine journeyed to Coruscant, Death Watch made a second attempt on her life. Mandalore's senator, Tal Merrik, was secretly in league with the Death Watch, and used his senatorial stamp to smuggle several assassin probes aboard the duchess' ship. This attempt failed, and once Satine safely arrived at the galactic capital, the Death Watch reoccupied their base on Concordia as a staging area for their impending invasion of Mandalore. A New Mandalorian scout reported this development to Prime Minster Almec.[38]

However, the Prime Minister wasn't concerned because he believed that the Death Watch would never be able to take Mandalore without the support of the public. Meanwhile, the Republic Senate had decided to send peacekeeping forces to Mandalore after being shown forged evidence of a senior Mandalorian minister begging the Republic to send help. With the help of Kenobi, the Duchess was able to uncover the unedited version of the holorecording. After being shown the new evidence, the Republic Senate revoked its order to send peacekeepers to Mandalore. This shut down Death Watch's plans, and they cancelled the planned attack on Mandalore and broke all ties with the Separatists.[38]

The Confederacy invades Tipoca City.

Following the destruction of a Republic monitoring station, the Separatist army, led by General Grievous and Asajj Ventress, begin a daring invasion of the cloning world of Kamino. The aim of the campaign was to destroy the Republic cloning factories and thus deny the Republic more troops, turning the war in the Separatists favor. The droid army was to launch an invasion while Asajj Ventress stole the crucial genetic material needed to produce more clones. However their plan was foiled when Jedi General Anakin Skywalker intercepted Ventress and defeated her following a fierce lightsaber duel. The main droid army was also defeated by the clone troopers.[39]

However, the setback did not stop the Trade Federation from blockading the moon Pantora in the system of the same name, in an attempt to force them to join the Separatist-alliance. As part of the conspiracy, the daughters of the Pantoran Chairman Papanoida were kidnapped and held hostage on the main ship of the Separatist-blockade. Following a daring rescue by Ahsoka Tano and Pantoran Senator Riyo Chuchi, the conspiracy was uncovered, and the Trade Federation was forced to remove its blockade.[40]

Following a secret meeting between Padmé Amidala and Mina Bonteri, the Separatist Senate approved the start of peace talks between the Separatists and the Republic. However, these talks quickly fell apart following a series of plots by Count Dooku to destroy the peace process. Dooku ordered two attacks – the death of Mina Bonteri, and a bombing on the Republic capital of Coruscant. Following these, neither side had any desire to continue the peace-process. This cancellation came despite heated protests from Amidala, who pointed out that the moral responsibility of the war also had to be considered. This led to accusations by some members of the Republic Senate that Amidala had betrayed the Republic.[4]

Renewed campaigns[]

Ventress leads the Separatist assault at Sullust.

The Separatist fleet began a major space battle against a Republic flotilla over Sullust, with Asajj Ventress personally leading the Separatists against the Republic. However, the battle would turn when Dooku was ordered to kill his apprentice by Darth Sidious to prove his loyalty. Dooku ordered Ventress's reinforcements to return in an attempt to end his apprentice's life indirectly. Following the destruction of her command ship, Dooku presumed her to be dead, and ordered the recall of the armada from Sullust.[41]

Contrary to Dooku's belief, Ventress escaped and survived her ordeal.[41] Republic forces were in control of the ancient Temple of Eedit which acted as a front for the Republic's military outpost. In order to gain control of temple, a Separatist Army was sent to attack. The Republic sent two Jedi—Jedi Master Halsey and his Padawan Knox—and several ARF troopers. The Republic troops were able to hold back the Separatist forces and gained the upper hand in the battle. However, in order to test the powers of his new apprentice, Savage Opress, Dooku sent him to Devaron to finish the battle and destroy the Republic forces. Opress mercilessly slaughtered all the clones upon his arrival, including ARF Commander Trauma. Finding the two Jedi in front of temple's door, he attacked Halsey, and although the Roonan fought hard, Opress struck him down. Knox, after witnessing his master's death, attacked his master's killer. However, Opress effortlessly slashed him across the chest, sending him flying into the temple doors, dead. Upon successfully completing his mission, Opress returned to Serenno.[42]

Following the capture of Jedi Master Even Piell, a highly-trained strike force led by Obi-Wan Kenobi and Anakin Skywalker (along with Skywalker's apprentince Ahsoka Tano), attempted to rescue Piell and his command-crew from the Citadel – a high-security Separatist prison made specifically for Jedi. The prisoners were of special importance to the Republic because they possessed knowledge of the coordinates for the Nexus Route—a hyperspace lane which led directly to both the Republic and Separatist capital worlds. During the escape, Piell was killed but the vital information was passed onto Tano. Following a number of challenges, the team managed to escape the prison with the coordinates and most of the former prisoners.[43] Following the defeat of the Republic during the First Battle of Felucia, the Republic army launched a second invasion attempt. During the invasion the Republic launched a series of major offensives on the planet. In retaliation, General Grievous sent a number of reinforcements to various Separatist outposts on the planet. In response, the Jedi intensified their offensive and managed to gain control of the planet and system.[44]

Quarrens fight hand to hand with Mon Calamari soldiers.

Following the assassination of the previous Mon Calamari king, the Quarren attempted to seize control of Mon Cala with the aid of the Separatists. At the request of Prince Lee-Char, the Republic sent an underwater regiment as reinforcements for the Mon Calamari. After a fierce battle, the Quarren and Separatists emerged victorious and enslaved all the Mon Calamari. Not willing to give up on Mon Cala, the Jedi Council sent reinforcements in the form of the Gungan Grand Army from Naboo. During the ensuing battle, the Quarren came to the realization that the Separatists were only interested in capturing Mon Cala for themselves. With this in mind, they turned on the Separatist forces and defeated them.[45]

Dooku later conspired with Grievous and Minister Rish Loo to launch another invasion of Naboo, a plot that would involve turning the Gungans against the humans there. Minister Loo began influencing Boss Lyonie through the use of a necklace. He influenced Lyonie to order an attack on Theed with the help of the Separatist Alliance. After Anakin Skywalker and Jar Jar Binks removed the necklace, Rish Loo attempted to kill Lyonie. Believing him dead, Loo went to the assembled Gungan Grand Army and told them that Lyonie was dead, ordering them to attack Theed immediately. Jar Jar, however, arrived at the event, posing as Lyonie. He denounced Rish Loo and cancelled the order to invade Theed. Rish Loo then fled to his laboratory. Anakin followed Loo, fighting the probe droids sent to stop him. Meanwhile, Grievous and his army landed on Naboo and contacted Jar Jar (who they believed to be Lyonie) to ask why the attack on Theed had been cancelled. Jar Jar entered Grievous's lander and attempted to stall the General. Eventually, Grievous figured out that Jar Jar was not Lyonie, and chased the Gungan outside, where he found his entire army deactivated. The Gungan army surrounded Grievous and told him to surrender.[46]

Grievous replied by drawing two lightsabers, and killing several Gungan warriors. His rampage was stopped, however, when General Roos Tarpals stabbed him with an electric spear – yet during this heroic act, the cyborg also stabbed Tarpals through the heart, killing him. Just before he died, Tarpals drove his spear all the way through Grievous, allowing the rest of the Gungan warriors to disable Grievous with boombas. At the same time, Skywalker found Dooku's lair, after following Rish Loo to an ancient cliffside-structure. Unknown to Skywalker, the lair was actually a trap set by Count Dooku, designed to capture him. Dooku killed Loo for his incompetence, and following a lightsaber battle, involving Dooku and several MagnaGuards, Skywalker was captured and taken hostage. Shortly after Skywalker's capture, Padmé Amidala received a message from Dooku on her holoprojector. During the exchange, Dooku told Amidala that he had captured Skywalker. He then demanded that Amidala give back General Grievous in return for Skywalker. She reluctantly agreed, and the prisoner exchange took place shortly thereafter. Following the prisoner-exchange, the Separatist forces retreated.[46]

After the assassination of senator Mee Deechi at the hands of Lolo Purs,[47] the planet Umbara seceded from the Galactic Republic and joined the Confederacy, pledging the Umbaran Militia and its advanced technology to the cause. Because of this action, the Republic launched an invasion of Umbara.[48] The Umbarans and the Separatists put up heavy resistance against the invaders. Despite their efforts and Jedi General Pong Krell's treason against the Republic, Umbara successfully became part of the Republic again.[49]

The Confederacy, meanwhile, had formed an alliance with Queen Miraj Scintel, leader of the Zygerrian Slave Empire. As part of the deal, the Confederacy attacked a Togruta colony on Kiros and enslaved all of its inhabitants.[50] However, their plans were foiled when the Jedi managed to track the missing colonists to the Zygerrian homeworld. The Jedi Council then sent Anakin Skywalker, Obi-Wan Kenobi, and Ahsoka Tano to infiltrate the slave markets where the colonists were being held. During their attempted rescue, Kenobi and Skywalker were captured. Kenobi was sent to a slave-processing facility, while Skywalker became the personal slave of the Queen. While being held as the Queen's slave, Scintel developed feelings for Anakin. When she was ordered by Dooku to kill him, she refused. As a punishment for her defiance, Dooku mortally injured her. Seeing his opportunity, Skywalker freed Tano, and carried the Queen onto a slave-ship, upon which he escaped.[51]

Following Skywalker's escape, the Queen, before perishing, revealed to him the location of the processing facility where Kenobi and the missing Togruta-colonists were being held, Kadavo. Having discovered the location and told the Jedi Council, Skywalker and Tano arrived at the facility. They attempted to break into the facility but failed. Soon after their arrival, Republic reinforcements arrived, and the facility's defenses were soon disabled. With no hope of escape, Keeper Agruss attempted to kill the colonists by dropping them into a volcanic pit. However, his plan was foiled when Tano devised a plan to rescue the colonists, and he was killed. With the successful rescue of Kenobi and the colonists, the Jedi departed the facility, and destroyed it.[52]

At the height of the Clone Wars, the Confederacy of Independent Systems held a peace conference with the Galactic Republic on the neutral planet Mandalore between representatives of both governments in an effort to end the pan-galactic conflict. The conference was presided over by Duchess Satine Kryze within her royal palace in the New Mandalorian capital Sundari. At the beginning of the meeting, Naboo Senator Padmé Amidala opened up the discussions, leading the Republic senators in the peace negotiations, but she was quickly rebuffed by Senator Voe Atell, who called for the Republic to declare the Separatist-state legitimate. However, before the delegates could further discuss their terms of peace, Lux Bonteri, son of the late Onderonian senator Mina Bonteri, interrupted the summit, and announced to the politicians that it was Count Dooku that had his mother murdered. This led young Bonteri to soon afterward be escorted out by Separatist commando-droids, allowing the discussion to continue. Shortly after his escape, however, the negotiations fell apart completely, along with hopes of gaining the full legitimacy it sought.[25]

Height of the Rebellion on Onderon.

Having instigated Onderon's secession from the Galactic Republic at the beginning of the Clone Wars, King Sanjay Rash found his regime, backed by the Confederacy of Independent Systems, challenged by a group of rebels organized by the young insurgents Steela and Saw Gerrera. The rebels hoped to restore the deposed King Ramsis Dendup to the throne. Seeing an opportunity to engage the Confederacy on another front, the Republic began to fund the rebels with credits and arms to combat Rash's occupational forces from the Separatist Droid Army. The Jedi High Council sent a team of advisors to train the rebels, along with some of the 501st Legion who were covertly inserted into Onderon, and who oversaw training-sessions at the insurgency's jungle camp. Midway through the training, the camp was attacked, and the lessons escalated into actual combat when a battle droid-squadron attempted to exterminate the rebels; however, the newly-trained rebels eliminated the enemy droid-squad.[53]

The rebels then infiltrated the Separatist-occupied capital Iziz, conducting strikes on droid patrols throughout the city. They also targeted Iziz's main power generator to extinguish the battle droids recharging source, and also proving they were capable of challenging the Separatists and Rash. Count Dooku sent King Rash reinforcements under the command of the super tactical droid General Kalani.[54] After the rebels attempted and failed to free the deposed King Dendup, King Rash ordered his public execution. However, his plans were foiled when General Tandin and his royal guards sided with the rebels during Rash's attempted execution of Dendup, helping Gerrera and her insurgents rescue Dendup, He also pledged the Royal Onderon Militia to their forces.[55]

With Steela appointed by Dendup as their commanding general, the joint rebel and royal soldiers pulled out from Iziz, hoping to preserve civilian lives by isolating armed conflict to the eastern highlands. As full-scale fighting began, the rebels used the mountainous terrain against the Separatists, and despite heavy casualties, won the battle with the help of illegal rocket-launchers supplied to them though underworld contacts. Faced with this catastrophic defeat, Dooku contacted Rash and Kalani. Rash explained what had happened, and that they would need even more help to defeat the rebels. Dooku refused, not wanting another war to deal with. He commanded Kalani to call back all of the droid-forces from the planet, and withdraw to Agamar. As Rash angrily protested, Kalani shot the deluded king, killing him.[56]

The Carida Incident was the result of a mission undertaken by the Confederacy of Independent Systems who sabotaged a Venator-class Star Destroyer by loading it with rhydonium canisters with the intention of ramming it into the Valor space station, the site of a Republic strategy conference. While escaping Abafar, the D-Squad took refuge in the Venator-class Star Destroyer, on which they planned to return the stolen Separatist encryption module, but they discovered it was overrun by droids. They undertook efforts to disrupt the Confederate plot and stop the ship from destroying a Republic strategy conference in the Carida system.[57]

The Battle of Ringo Vinda took place outside a Separatist-controlled space station that surrounded the planet of Ringo Vinda. Initially the battle was moving in the favor of the Republic. However, the battle turned in the Separatists favor when a clone trooper, CT-5385 Tup, malfunctioned and executed Order 66 early, killing Jedi General Tiplar. With their momentum lost, the Republic had no option other than to withdraw. The unusual behavior of the Republic was noticed by Separatist Admiral Trench who reported it to Dooku, who then reported it to Darth Sidious. Sidious ordered the capture of the clone, which the Separatists successfully undertook before the Republic left Ringo Vinda. However, before Tup could be delivered to the Confederacy for study, he was recaptured by Anakin Skywalker and the Republic on the ongoing shuttle, with Kraken killed in the raid, and made it to Kamino.[58]

Meanwhile, one the Confederacy's backers, the Banking Clan, which was previously deregulated, was on the verge of collapse. The Core Five were embezzling the funds needed for both sides, but Padmé and Clovis, who narrowly escaped the bounty hunter Embo on the planet of Scipio, presented the evidence of their embezzlements and Clovis became the new head of the Banking Clan.[59] While Clovis worked to get the banks back to neutrality after Padmé and Separatist Senator Bec Lawise oversaw the transfer of power, Dooku had Clovis raise the Republic's interest rates, but leave the Separatist's rates untouched, despite his objections. The droid army, led by Dooku and a rebuilt Kraken, descended onto Scipio, invading the planet and defeated the Coruscant Guard led by Commander Thorn. Dooku proposed arresting Padmé, but Bec Lawise objected, stating the Separatist Senate would not allow for it, earning him a blast for his objections, and removing another Separatist Senator from the government.[60]

Eventually, Republic forces led by General Skywalker came to Scipio to free the planet and Padmé, while Dooku and Kraken left the fighting to the remaining forces. The Republic won the battle, at the cost of Clovis's death, which allowed the Banking Clan to be placed under Palpatine, with the Republic no longer having to go bankrupt.[60] However, a faction of the banks led by San Hill remained,[8] while the Separatists could no longer get the loans from the main faction.[60]

The Confederacy would attempt to commit a mass genocide on the people of Mahran under orders from Count Dooku. The planet was of strategic importance to the Confederacy because of its vast quantities of natural resources. In response the people of Mahran begged the Jedi Council to send aid. The Jedi responded by sending Jedi General Chubor with a task force of clone troopers. However, they were too late to prevent Separatist forces from laying waste much of the planet, including the capital city. The Republic attempted to escort the remaining Mahranee off world but were stopped when the Separatists launched a massive attack, slaughtering all the civilians, Jedi and clones. After this massacre, Dooku attempted to lay the blame for the tragedy on the Jedi Council. This led the council to finally authorize an assassination attempt on the Count in a desperate bid to limit the war's casualties. The Jedi Council then sent Quinlan Vos under the guise of a bounty hunter to recruit Asajj Ventress, who previously came close to killing Dooku and knew much about him, to aid him in the assassination. Their first attempt on Dooku ended in failure with Vos being captured, with a final plan to assassinate him during the second battle of Christophsis ending in the death of his former apprentice Asajj Ventress.[16]

Maul and Grievous engage in single combat.

Darth Sidious had brought Maul to the Spire, a prison fortress controlled by the Confederacy of Independent Systems on Stygeon Prime. It was there that Sidious briefly interrogated Maul, and told Count Dooku to find out information about who and where the Shadow Collective leaders were. The goal was to make Maul believe that the Sith wanted to destroy the Shadow Collective, so he would seek out Mother Talzin. Meanwhile, Sidious was followed to Stygeon Prime by two Death Watch warriors, Rook Kast and Gar Saxon, under orders from Mandalore's Prime Minister, Almec to free Maul from the Spire.[61]

After being freed, Maul was tracked to Zanbar by General Grievous along with a Separatist fleet. Dooku ordered Grievous not to kill Maul, simply to defeat and break his forces enough that Maul would seek out Mother Talzin's help. Grievous launched his forces towards the surface, and Maul's troops immediately began firing anti-aircraft weaponry at them. The heavy fire was not enough to repel the ships, however, so the Separatists pressed their attack and deployed all of their forces.[61] After the Shadow Collective lost on Zanbar, Maul attacked Dooku and Grievous over Ord Mantell which led Maul to make his way into orbit and boarded Grievous' command ship. Grievous disabled the battle droid army after Maul gave him the choice to do so or die, and the cyborg general was taken into custody. Dooku, meanwhile, had engaged and defeated the Nightbrothers in battle, before being captured by the Shadow Collective forces.[62]

Sidious and Grievous arrived to confront Maul and Talzin on Dathomir after finding out where Dooku was being held, the latter of whom had used her magick to take control of Dooku's body. This led to a lightsaber duel, in which Sidious quickly gained the upper hand against the Talzin-controlled Dooku. Talzin appeared in the flesh, returned to her physical form, and held off a Force lightning assault from Sidious and, eventually, Dooku. Talzin sacrificed her own life to allow Maul to escape, as Grievous fatally stabbed the Dathomirian witch through the chest while Maul fled from Dathomir. The Separatists, meanwhile, also attacked Maul's Black Sun and Pyke Syndicate allies, leading the mercenaries to end their alliance with Maul; destroying the Shadow Collective.[63]

The world of Anaxes was attacked by a Confederate fleet under the command of Trench, starting the Outer Rim Sieges, as the Separatists' last stand to force the Republic into surrender. He besieged the Republic shipyards for weeks on end, exploiting the Techno Union's access to a secret Republic strategy algorithm. Even as the tide of battle began to turn against him, Trench remained intent on annihilating the Jedi and their clone infantry. In a last ditch effort, he activated a bomb beneath the assembly complex on Anaxes. However, Anakin Skywalker infiltrated Trench's flagship and forced the admiral to divulge the sequence to disarm the device. When Trench tried to retaliate, Skywalker drove his lightsaber through his chest killing him and ending the battle.[64]

Outer Rim Sieges[]

The Assault on Mygeeto during the waning days of the war.

By the final days of the Clone Wars, the Republic had pushed back the CIS, taking away most of its territory and effectively only leaving it with a few systems in the Outer Rim. To wipe out the Confederacy's last holdings,[65] the Republic was laying siege to the Confederacy in the Outer Rim and its holdings in other sectors, with battles taking place on Cato Neimoidia, Mygeeto, Saleucami, Kashyyyk, Felucia,[8] Kaller, and Lokori[66][67] while Grievous had launched an counter-offensive against the Republic, pushing its military to the the breaking point. In response to the assault, Jedi Generals were deployed to help the Grand Army of the Republic.[68] The Confederacy was also involved in a confrontation with the Republic on Bracca, a planet in the Mid Rim. The Confederacy intended to take control of the Republic world with the help of sympathizers of the Scrapper Guild.[69]

The Separatists had launched a surprise attack on the capital of the Galactic Republic, Coruscant and saw Chancellor Palpatine captured by Grievous and kept on board his command ship. However, this was a plan orchestrated by Sidious in order for Anakin to kill Dooku and replace him as Sidious's next apprentice, but no one was aware of the Sith Lords' true intention. The Republic sent General Kenobi and Master Skywalker to rescue the Chancellor. During their rescue attempt, they were confronted by Count Dooku and engaged him in a lightsaber duel. Dooku initially gained the upper hand, knocking Kenobi out, however, he was soon overpowered by Skywalker, who cut off his hands and then took Dooku's own lightsaber and held it to his throat along with his own, in a scissor position. At Skywalker's mercy, Dooku was betrayed by his master, as Palpatine ordered Anakin to kill him. Dooku was shocked and horrified, while likely also realizing that his own master used and betrayed him. Despite the fact that the count was an unarmed prisoner and that it was against the Jedi Code, he was nevertheless beheaded by Skywalker. After rescuing the chancellor, they escaped to the bridge where Grievous lay in wait for them. They engaged him in a duel and managed to defeat him, however he managed to escape.[8]

Grievous then ordered the fleet to withdraw and became head of state of the Confederacy of the Independent Systems, who fled to Utapau, which was occupied by them[8] sometime after a crystal incident,[70] where he hid and met with the Separatist Council. After a brief disagreement with Nute Gunray, he ordered both him and other leaders to go to the Mustafar system where they would be safe. During his time there, his location was discovered by Clone Intelligence. This led the Jedi Council to send Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi to investigate. Having arrived in secret, Kenobi confirmed the presence of Grievous and ordered a full-scale assault on the settlement. During the ensuing battle, Grievous would be killed by Kenobi while trying to flee the sinkhole planet.[8]

The end of the war[]

"The war is over! Lord Sidious promised us peace. We only want—"
―Nute Gunray's last words, before being killed by Darth Vader — (audio) Listen (file info)[8]

The Separatist leadership at the end of the war.

Following this, the Galactic Republic reformed into the Galactic Empire, with Palpatine declaring himself Galactic Emperor. On Mustafar, Darth Sidious conversed with the Separatist Council via hologram, with Gunray remarking confidently that their plan had gone just as the Dark Lord of the Sith had promised. Demoralized by their recent defeats, Gunray and the other leaders had wished to sue for peace, but did not know what Sidious had planned for them, who promised that his new apprentice would soon arrive to take care of them. Much to the councils' obliviousness, they were being betrayed by Sidious, who really sent Vader to eliminate them on Mustafar. Once Darth Vader landed, he entered the mining facility and slaughtered the Separatists, taking them out one by one with his lightsaber; he also destroyed the OOM-series security droids, an OOM command battle droid, and Neimoidian guards and aides who had assembled in the room with their leaders. In rapid succession, Vader executed the Councilors including Po Nudo of the planet Ando,[71] Passel Argente[8] of the Corporate Alliance,[72] and Presidente Shu Mai of the Commerce Guild.[73] He then set his sights on Tikkes[8] of Mon Cala and Archduke Poggle the Lesser of Geonosis. Minister Wat Tambor of the Techno Union,[30] who fled into a conference room, and Rune Haako of the Trade Federation were also soon killed and only Nute Gunray remained who begged for mercy but also was murdered by Vader.[8]

After the slaughter, Vader received the order to end the Confederacy from Palpatine by sending a transmission to the Droid Control Ships of the Trade Federation to issue the immediate deactivation of all remaining droid units within the Separatist Droid Army. The signal[8] spread throughout the galaxy, such as on Lokori, thus formally ending the war. With the Separatist Droid Army shut down,[66] the Empire had defeated the Confederacy, winning the Clone Wars[8] and bringing about the collapse of the CIS.[6] Concurrently, the various federations and guilds that held power under the CIS were mostly wiped out.[74]


Under the Empire and dissolution[]

"The Empire is not your enemy. We promise to treat all planets within the Confederacy of Independent Systems fairly."
Captain Bragg[75]

While the Empire promised to treat all planets within the Confederacy of Independence Systems fairly, this was not the reality.

Sweeping into the former Confederacy's territory,[76] the Empire proclaimed it was not the Confederacy's enemy, claiming their regime would treat all planets within the CIS fairly in exchange for their loyalty.[75] In reality, however, all former Separatists would come to suffer under Imperial rule.[76] Indeed, members of the Separatist Senate were arrested, and the capital of Raxus was occupied by the Imperial Military.[75] With the Confederacy's robotic armies withdrawn[77] or outright defeated,[8] the Imperial Army was able to march through former Separatist territory[75] without fear of a military resistance.[77]

As the Clone Wars ended, the former Confederacy was absorbed into the fledgling Galactic Empire whose Navy began to root out the remaining surviving Separatist holdouts who had not surrendered and stopped fighting for at least four years after the Clone Wars, while criminal organizations composed of re-purposed battle droids such as the Droid Gotra operated in Imperial Center's underground while some escaped notice all together.[14] The destruction of many of the corporations that had allied with the Separatists opened a power vacuum, allowing smaller groups to step in; the Fardi clan took advantage of the opening, using it to rise into power without allying with large crime families.[74]

Last remains[]

"Understand as a Separatist, I fought for freedom but put my trust in a corrupt leadership."
"You were the leadership—a General."
"The Jedi were Generals. Do you truly believe they comprehended the cause they started? Holster your weapon, boy. We are no longer enemies. Perhaps we never were."
―Former Separatist General Kleeve to Jedi survivor Caleb Dume[78]

During the Age of the Empire, the tale of the Clone Wars was frequently used as a warning to the Galaxy of what could happen should the Empire and order fail. Separatist military equipment (including battle droids) that survived the war was used by a number of pirate and resistance organizations including Berch Teller's rebel cell[14] and the insurgent leader Nevil Cygni.[79] A large amount of heavily modified Separatist equipment was used by the Alliance to Restore the Republic; examples include the IG-227 Hailfire-class droid tank, the Lucrehulk-class Battleship, and the Armored Assault Tank.[80] The New Republic starfighter pilot Temmin Wexley's best friend was a former B1 battle droid named Mister Bones.[81] The end of the Clone Wars was not acknowledged by all elements of the Confederacy, with some possibly not being unaware it was over.[66] The super tactical droid General Kalani, who assumed that the order was instead a Republic trick, and prevented the deactivation[82] of his large garrison[83] of droids marooned on Agamar in the wreckage of a DH-Omni Support Vessel[82] that had crashed during a battle fought on the planet,[84] where they would await for retrieval during the next seventeen years.[85] Kalani's remaining forces consisted mostly of B1-series battle droids and a few droidekas, though they lacked any heavy vehicles or starships capable of leaving the planet. The munitions depot they were protecting at the base kept Kalani and his droids well-provisioned enough to still remain reasonably functional for almost two decades without resupply.[82]

Moff Tarkin led a brutal attack on Antar 4 in order to send a message to former Confederate planets.

Seeking to make examples of worlds who continued to harbor secessionist tendencies, worlds like Kooriva, Murkhana and on Raxus Secundus, the formal capital of the Confederacy, which still hosted ex-Separatists, became targets of the Empire. One such example, assigned to Moff Wilhuff Tarkin, was on the once loyal Separatist moon, Antar 4. During the genocidal atrocities committed on the moon's population, Imperial forces made no attempt to sort the Separatists from the Imperial loyalists. This served to compel Raxus and other worlds to surrender all former Separatists to Imperial custody, or else suffer a similar demise to that of Antar 4.[14]

By the early Imperial period,[66] remnants of the Confederacy of Independent Systems had fled into the Western Reaches.[14] Various planetary populations of former Confederate worlds were dissatisfied with the lack of reconstructive action in the aftermath of the Clone Wars, joining the holdouts and thus swelling their numbers in their campaign against the Empire[66] that lasted until 15 BBY.[source?] Imperial shipyards like the one in orbit over Kartoosh, just outside of the Western Reaches, served as a repair hub for starships damaged in engagements with Separatists as well as salvage yards for captured vessels.[66] The Bilbringi shipyards also served as a dismantling point for old Separatist warships. The Imperial forces were led by Tarkin, fresh from "pacifying Antar 4," who had been assigned to oversee operations by Emperor Sheev Palpatine himself.[14] Both Tarkin and Lieutenant Commander Orson Krennic would utilize the conflict against the holdouts as a pretext to justify for the appropriation of numerous legacy worlds—worlds legally protected as ecological reserves—advancing the top-secret Imperial construction project occurring above Geonosis.[66]

After the war, some Separatists took on lives that operated outside of the law; the prestigious General Kleeve took on the name "Jondo" and worked off the planet Lahn,[78] In addition, the enterprising Imperial Navy officer Thrawn collected Separatist weapons and technology including a buzz droid.[79]

The Galactic Empire completed the Geonosian designed Death Star, intending to use the space station to enforce fear.

Soon after the Empire's formation, Emperor Palpatine and Darth Vader observed the construction of the Death Star, a super-weapon which had begun construction shortly after the Second Battle of Geonosis by the Separatists. With the Separatists defeated and their leaders killed, the Death Star project was taken over by the Galactic Empire, who planned to use it to control the galaxy.[8] Nineteen years later, the Death Star was used to destroy the planet Alderaan, killing all the inhabitants. The Death Star was later destroyed during the Battle of Yavin when a young Rebel pilot, Luke Skywalker, exploited a serious design flaw to destroy the battle station, making the battle a major Rebel victory in the Galactic Civil War.[86]

After the Alliance to Restore the Republic was re-organized into the New Republic after it won the war, it was decided that the capital of the New Republic would be rotated periodically—addressing one of the main concerns of the Confederate systems.[87]



"In accordance with the Bylaws of Independent Systems, a voice vote is required."

The Count of Serenno served as the Head of State of the Confederacy and was aided by the Separatist Council.

A union of independent governments and thousands of star systems, the Confederacy of Independent Systems was a confederate government organized and directed by former Jedi Master, Count Dooku,[11] who served as the government's Head of State throughout much of the Confederacy's duration.[8] Acting through the Bylaws of Independent Systems, an established constitution that vested capabilities to the Confederacy's parliament, Dooku operated as an officiator within the legislature for congressional procedures.[4] Disparagingly referred to as the Separatists by those within the Galactic Republic, the Confederacy's ideological beliefs centered around minimal taxation and trade regulations, as it provided its member systems with an increase in control over their territories. Furthermore, the confederate government also offered assurances to its allies of a smaller and more centralized government, as well as freedom for local governments in order to privately maintain their internal affairs, while also offering egalitarian representation for governments that were left isolated within the galaxy's Rim regions from the Core Worlds and Republic Senate.[11]

Although its system of government appealed to multiple intellectuals and self-styled "free-thinkers," those of whom were inhabitants of the regions beyond the core, the Confederacy developed and came against two extensive issues. The preliminary issues was that as a result of military opposition to secessionist movements by the Republic, the government's allied members worlds were required to relinquish control and resources to Dooku and the Confederacy in order to maintain their war effort. Furthermore, the confederate government's laissez-faire stance in response to star systems' rights resulted in many Republic protections for workers, such as antislavery laws, autochthonous sentients' rights, and environmental exploitation and protection laws rendered ineffective, which in turn led to localized resistances across numerous worlds dissatisfied with the realities of separatism.[11]

With the Clone Wars, however, Dooku was provided with wartime powers by the Separatist Parliament,[11] which allowed him to implement executive orders in regards to governmental decisions and resulted in the undermining of the democratic process, thereby making the parliament ineffective.[88] The position of Head of State also granted individuals with direct power over the government's Executive Separatist Council,[8] an executive advisory and administrative body formed from the leaders of the major galactic corporations that supported the Confederacy, such as Trade Federation Viceroy Nute Gunray and Federation Settlement Officer Rune Haako, Techno Union Foreman Wat Tambor, Commerce Guild Presidente Shu Mai, InterGalactic Banking Clan Chairman San Hill, Corporate Alliance Magistrate Passel Argente, Senators Po Nudo, Tikkes and Rogwa Wodrata, and Geonosian Archduke Poggle the Lesser. The Separatist Council managed much of the Confederacy alongside Dooku, while also being responsible for the oversight of the government's daily operations and vital planetary occupations, as well as additional situations that were related to its efforts in the Clone Wars.[11]

However, following Dooku's death in the Confederacy's assault on the Republic capital world of Coruscant,[8] control over the confederate government,[5] its military forces[89] and protection of the Separatist Council was vested to the cybernetic warlord, General Grievous, who had served as the Supreme Martial Commander of the Separatist Droid Armies throughout the war's duration. A position held for only several days after Dooku's death, Grievous was silenced not long after his appointment to Head of State,[5] which thereby transferred overall control of the Confederacy to Gunray.[8]


The Separatist Senate was housed on Raxus.

Headquartered on the Confederacy's capital world of Raxus Secundus, the Separatist Senate was a legislative body of senators that governed the confederate government, while also existing primarily for mutual defense and dispute mediation. Independent from the obsolete mandates and proprieties that bridle the Republic coupled with corruption, the parliament lightly directed the Confederacy under the supervision of Separatist Congress Leader and Speaker, Senator Bec Lawise.[11] However, despite serving as the government's legislature, the Separatist Parliament was granted with minimal power as it operated as an advisory body to Dooku and the Executive Separatist Council,[90] which handled the government's funding and military-based matters.[11]

They were all from worlds and systems who joined the Separatist cause, including ones that had once been members of the Galactic Senate that continued to represent their constituents in the Confederacy, and had involvement in public affairs. The senate was seated on the Confederate capital planet of Raxus Secundus. Many loyalists and senators of the Republic believed that the Separatist senators were no more than pawns to Dooku. Furthermore, the senators of the parliament as well as the citizens of the Confederacy were repeatedly shielded from front-line reports of brutal campaigns waged by the Separatist Droid Army by the various elements of the Separatist hierarchy.[4]

The Separatist Parliament was responsible for coordinating the mutual defense and mediating disputes between its members. It delegated most of its authority on taxation and trade regulation to its member systems, in accordance with the decentralized ideology of the Confederacy.[11]


"Our friends from the Trade Federation have pledged their support. And when their battle droids are combined with yours, we shall have an army greater than any in the galaxy. The Jedi will be overwhelmed. The Republic will agree to any demands we make."
―Count Dooku to the Separatist leadership[1]

The droid army on Geonosis.

The various commercial entities who joined under the banner of the Confederacy of Independent Systems pledged their forces to the military, creating one sprawling group of droids as well as organic forces, and local warriors, and was often referred to as the Droid Army, and was headed by a Supreme Commander.[7] These units were led by organic officers[11] as well as tactical droids to lead ground and naval forces, which included of the T-series tactical droid[91] and the more sophisticated super tactical droid.[92] The Confederacy's droid army was the largest droid ground force in history.[93]

The droid army was composed from the Trade Federation's battle droids to the security forces maintained by the Commerce Guild, InterGalactic Banking Clan, and Corporate Alliance, which donated not only its new B2-series super battle droids, but numerous foundries capable of producing thousands more droids for deployment as well as the OG-9 homing spider droids were a common sight on many front lines, and tank droids and AATs provided heavy firepower.[8][94] while also consisting of local forces of the worlds under its control,[48][51][95][1] who were of flesh and blood, however, government officials downplay this and stated that they were volunteers and not like the Republic cloned soldiers which had been pressed into service.[16]

Its naval wing was originally made up of heavily armed bulk transports from Separatist member corporations, but, as the Clone Wars continued, Pammant Docks and other Separatist allies built capital ships to make a creditable fleet. These starships were filled with a variety of starfighters and crewed by B1 battle droids,[11] within it fleet, it included the Subjugator-class heavy cruiser[30] which had mega-ion cannons that could disable the power systems of entire fleets, rendering them defenseless against the ship's massive array of lasers.[32]

Foreign policy[]

"Say it aloud before this gathering—as representative for Chancellor Palpatine that you declare, without reservation, the Separatist state legitimate."
―Senator Voe Atell to delegations from the Galactic Republic during a rare conference on Mandalore[25]

The representatives of the Republic and the Confederacy meeting on Mandalore in an effort to end the Clone Wars.

When the Confederacy of Independent Systems was formed, it received limited galactic recognition from many other entities due to a lack of legitimacy from the Galactic Republic as a separate state, but they did receive support from several major galactic corporations.[1] Intergalactic Association of Amalgamated Droid Builders was also aligned with the Confederacy, providing construction and service for the Separatists' Droid Army.[21]

The New Mandalorians government,[24] stayed neutral during the pan-galaxy conflict, and decided to agree to allow Mandalore as neutral ground to host an historic peace conference between representatives of the Republic and the Confederacy in an effort to end the Clone Wars, where the separatists sought full diplomatic recognition from the Republic, which it did not grant,[25] a recurring issue since its birth as a separate state,[11] but negotiations talks would result in failure.[25]

The Confederacy moved to annex the Qiilura system during the Clone War.[96] Later, they entered into relations with the Grysk Hegemony, a warlike species hailing from the Unknown Regions who had maintained surveillance on the Confederacy prior contact, they then decided to share information on cortosis, which was resistant against lightsabers.[97]

With the Confederacy keeping close ties with certain criminal groups and mercenaries,[98] several groups of pirates also signed terms with the Confederacy of Independent Systems to exclusively target the Galactic Republic during the Clone Wars, these were the Delmaasi, Iridium, Nuro, Red Fury Brotherhood, Merson and Nuala Marauders pirates, who were encouraged by Count Dooku to harass Republic supply lines.[11] As a result of the Separatist alliance with such groups, their technology occasionally ended up in the possession of pirates or other such groups.[98]

Society and culture[]

"I can only wonder what Count Dooku offered Vallt's new leadership. Perhaps he promised to tug this world a bit closer to your star."
"Trade, respect, fair representation in the Confederacy. All that we weren't receiving as a member of the Republic.
―Galen Erso and Gruppe[66]

The Confederacy of Independent Systems was primarily made up of alien and near-humans.

The Confederacy of Independent Systems population consisted of several different non-human[1] alien groups,[79] as well as near-humans,[99][14] this being reflected in both its military and political as it hierarchy was largely dominated by non-humans, while all species were seeking for fair trade, respect, and better representation in the Confederacy.[90][66][8] As such, the Confederacy treated human segments of its populations as second class,[source?] due to the corruption and favoritism toward the Core Worlds.[11] Nevertheless, some humans were known to occupy high ranking roles within the Confederacy, such as its head of state Court Dooku being a Serennian,[97] as well as Onderonian King Sanjay Rash[53] and senator Mina Bonteri.[4]

During the Battle of Mon Cala, the Separatists exploited tensions between the Mon Calamari and Quarren by backing the latter.[94] Count Dooku also ordered the enslavement of Mon Calamari prisoners and civilians.[100] Despite supporting the Quarren, Dooku made a secret agreement with the Karkarodon leader Riff Tamson to crown him the new King of Mon Cala.[45] The Confederacy later committed genocide against the Mahran species and attacked their homeworld, killing many civilians and refugees. In addition, the Confederacy also issued an order that all Mahrans were to be regarded as extremely hostile and killed on sight.[16]

A Separatist propaganda poster named Fighting for Your Independence.

According to Dooku's propaganda, the Galactic Republic and the Jedi Order were the victims of their own ambitions. He also alleged that the Supreme Chancellor was the pawn of corporate monopolies and that the Jedi had secretly created the Grand Army of the Republic to suppress the Confederacy's demands for reforms and equality. While the Republic's clone troopers were regarded as unwilling slaves who were regularly sent to their deaths, the Separatists sacrificed mainly droids. Dooku also claimed that the Confederacy's flesh and blood soldiers were willing participants who were fighting for freedom.[16]

Count Dooku was the main leader of the Confederacy of Independent Systems who served as a unifying force in the Separatist State. Many Separatists viewed him as a single, seemingly invincible figurehead to rally around. Some observers like the Jedi Master Mace Windu believed that eliminating Dooku would lead to the disintegration of the Separatist movement.[16] While the Separatists had other leaders like Separatist Congress Leader Bec Lawise,[4] Senator Mina Bonteri,[4] General Grievous,[8] the Viceroy Nute Gunray,[1] and Riff Tamson, all the other players within the Confederacy were controlled by Dooku.[16] To boost morale, Dooku traveled to several worlds including Raxus where he gave rousing speeches defending the Confederacy's cause and war effort. Wherever he traveled, Dooku was greeted by large crowds. Despite atrocities like the Attack on Mahranee, Dooku was still respected enough within the Confederacy to be conferred with awards like the Raxian Humanitarian Award.[16]


"Yes, Count Dooku succeeded in using the HoloNet for Separatist propaganda purposes, but Republic forces were quick to shut down those Shadowfeeds."
Vice Admiral Dodd Rancit to Harus Ison, regarding Dooku's Shadowfeeds during the Clone Wars[14]

The Separatist State gained a vast transportation network as systems and sectors broke away from the Republic during the Separatist Crisis which served as means of both civilian and military transport to support its objectives. This included several major hyperspace lanes—which were considered trans-galactic highways—with their knowledge and existence dating back to well before the Galactic Republic. Their control was vital for maintaining an effective means of defense and security during the Clone Wars.[16]

The Confederacy lacked its own official holofeeds network, forcing it to use unauthorized Shadowfeeds instead, which Count Dooku employed in an effort to spread propaganda during the Clone Wars. Shadowfeeds were created through sabotage of legitimate HoloNet networks. However, Republic Intelligence was able to shut down many of these Shadowfeeds quickly, which eventually led to the creation of the Commission for the Protection of the Republic. The governor of the planet Eriadu, Wilhuff Tarkin, was responsible for frustrating Dooku by providing counterintelligence to shut down many of his Shadowfeeds during the Clone Wars.[14]


Expansion and growth[]

"As I explained to you earlier, I am quite convinced that ten thousand more systems will rally to our cause."
―Dooku, to the Separatist Council — (audio) Listen (file info)[1]

The Confederacy of Independent Systems numbered at several thousand star systems, that had left the Galactic Republic at the start of the Clone Wars,[1] which were planets primarily from the Inner to Outer Rim Territories,[81] including the capital world of Raxus Secundus, among others,[101] such as Geonosis,[102] and Mustafar.[103]

Several neutral and unaligned worlds also were annexed by the Confederacy as the war drag on, such as Dathomir,[104] and Florrum.[105] As noticed by Ahsoka Tano, populations on worlds occupied by the Separatist Alliance would at first closely follow every new rule put in place. However, they also made sure to see what reaction occurred when these directives were violated. Afterward, the local population would begin to push back against the occupiers, doing an extreme pushback if the Separatists were violent in their reaction.[74]

Falling back and wars end[]

The Confederacy was pushed back to the spiral arms of the galaxy during the Outer Rim Sieges in the third and final year as the Republic continued to keep the pressure in these territories,[106] continuing to take place until the final days of the Clone Wars.[8]

Behind the scenes[]

The Confederacy of Independent Systems first appeared in Star Wars: Episode II Attack of the Clones.[1] Early in production of Attack of the Clones, the various commerce guilds were to all employ the same type of battle droids that were used by the Trade Federation, albeit with different color schemes to differentiate allegiance, but it was later decided that having each guild have their own wholly unique droids would provide visual diversity.[107]


Non-canon appearances[]


Notes and references[]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 Star Wars: Episode II Attack of the Clones
  2. Rise of the Separatists
  3. Helmet Collection logo small.png Star Wars Helmet Collection 52 (Databank A-Z: Hera Syndulla–Ahsoka Tano)
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Heroes on Both Sides"
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Star Wars: On the Front Lines
  6. 6.0 6.1 Star Wars: The Visual Encyclopedia
  7. 7.0 7.1 Star Wars Character Encyclopedia: Updated and Expanded
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.19 8.20 8.21 8.22 Star Wars: Episode III Revenge of the Sith
  9. 9.0 9.1 Star Wars: Absolutely Everything You Need to Know
  10. A New Dawn
  11. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 11.16 Rise of the Separatists
  12. StarWars-DatabankII.png Retail Caucus Droid in the Databank (backup link)
  13. 13.0 13.1 Rise of the Separatists establishes that the Raxus Address and following foundation of the Confederacy of Independent Systems occurred two years before the First Battle of Geonosis, which, along with the other events of Star Wars: Episode II Attack of the Clones, Star Wars: Galactic Atlas dates to 22 BBY. Therefore, simple math can be used to find the CIS was formed in 24 BBY. Additionally, because the ratification of the Geonosian accord first appeared in Attack of the Clones, the events of which are dated to 22 BBY by Galactic Atlas, the accord must have been ratified in 22 BBY.
  14. 14.00 14.01 14.02 14.03 14.04 14.05 14.06 14.07 14.08 14.09 14.10 14.11 14.12 14.13 14.14 14.15 14.16 14.17 Tarkin
  15. Star Wars: Galactic Atlas
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 Dark Disciple
  17. Star Wars: Episode I The Phantom Menace
  18. The main story of Queen's Shadow takes place 4 years after the Invasion of Naboo, which Star Wars: Galactic Atlas places in 32 BBY.
  19. Queen's Shadow
  20. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "The Lost One"
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Star Wars Propaganda: A History of Persuasive Art in the Galaxy
  22. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Supply Lines"
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Star Wars: The Clone Wars film
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "The Mandalore Plot"
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "A Friend in Need"
  26. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "The Hidden Enemy"
  27. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Liberty on Ryloth"
  28. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Storm Over Ryloth"
  29. StarWars-DatabankII.png Battle Droid in the Databank (backup link)
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 Ultimate Star Wars
  31. StarWars-DatabankII.png Malevolence in the Databank (backup link)
  32. 32.0 32.1 TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Rising Malevolence"
  33. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Destroy Malevolence"
  34. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "The Zillo Beast"
  35. 35.0 35.1 TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Senate Spy"
  36. 36.0 36.1 TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Landing at Point Rain"
  37. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Legacy of Terror"
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Duchess of Mandalore"
  39. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "ARC Troopers"
  40. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Sphere of Influence"
  41. 41.0 41.1 TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Nightsisters"
  42. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Monster"
  43. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Citadel Rescue"
  44. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Padawan Lost"
  45. 45.0 45.1 TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Prisoners"
  46. 46.0 46.1 TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Shadow Warrior"
  47. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Senate Murders"
  48. 48.0 48.1 TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Darkness on Umbara"
  49. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Carnage of Krell"
  50. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Kidnapped"
  51. 51.0 51.1 TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Slaves of the Republic"
  52. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Escape from Kadavo"
  53. 53.0 53.1 TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "A War on Two Fronts"
  54. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Front Runners"
  55. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "The Soft War"
  56. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Tipping Points"
  57. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Point of No Return"
  58. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "The Unknown"
  59. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "The Rise of Clovis"
  60. 60.0 60.1 60.2 TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Crisis at the Heart"
  61. 61.0 61.1 Darth Maul—Son of Dathomir 1
  62. Darth Maul—Son of Dathomir 2
  63. Darth Maul—Son of Dathomir 4
  64. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Unfinished Business"
  65. 66.0 66.1 66.2 66.3 66.4 66.5 66.6 66.7 66.8 Catalyst: A Rogue One Novel
  66. Kanan 1
  67. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Old Friends Not Forgotten"
  68. Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order
  69. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "The Big Bang"
  70. StarWars-DatabankII.png Po Nudo in the Databank (backup link)
  71. StarWars-DatabankII.png Passel Argente in the Databank (backup link)
  72. StarWars-DatabankII.png Shu Mai in the Databank (backup link)
  73. 74.0 74.1 74.2 Ahsoka
  74. 75.0 75.1 75.2 75.3 TBBtemplate.png Star Wars: The Bad Batch – "Common Ground"
  75. 76.0 76.1 The Star Wars Book
  76. 77.0 77.1 AltayaCite.svg "The Beginning of the Clone Wars" – Star Wars Encyclopedia
  77. 78.0 78.1 Kanan 4
  78. 79.0 79.1 79.2 Thrawn
  79. Star Wars: Commander
  80. 81.0 81.1 Aftermath
  81. 82.0 82.1 82.2 Rebels-mini-logo.png Star Wars Rebels – "The Last Battle"
  82. Ultimate Star Wars, New Edition
  83. BYOR2D2 logo small.png Star Wars: Build Your Own R2-D2 51 (Droid Directory: Super Tactical Droids)
  84. Ultimate Star Wars, New Edition states that the events of "The Last Battle" occur seventeen years after the end of the Clone Wars, which Star Wars: Galactic Atlas dates to 19 BBY. Therefore, the events of "The Last Battle" must take place in 2 BBY.
  85. Star Wars: Episode IV A New Hope
  86. Star Wars: The Force Awakens: The Visual Dictionary
  87. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Crisis at the Heart"
  88. Star Wars: Battles that Changed the Galaxy
  89. 90.0 90.1 Collapse of the Republic
  90. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Jedi Crash"
  91. StarWars-DatabankII.png General Kalani in the Databank (backup link)
  92. Helmet Collection logo small.png Star Wars Helmet Collection 21 (Databank A-Z: Greedo–Gundarks)
  93. 94.0 94.1 TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Water War"
  94. Kanan 7
  95. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Mercy Mission"
  96. 97.0 97.1 Thrawn: Alliances
  97. 98.0 98.1 SWZ01 logo.png Star Wars: X-Wing Second EditionTrident-class Assault Ship Expansion Pack (Card: Lawless Pirates)
  98. Star Wars: Aliens of the Galaxy
  99. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Gungan Attack"
  100. StarWars-DatabankII.png Raxus in the Databank (backup link)
  101. Rebels-mini-logo.png Star Wars Rebels – "Ghosts of Geonosis"
  102. StarWars-DatabankII.png Mustafar in the Databank (backup link)
  103. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Bounty"
  104. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "A Necessary Bond"
  105. Star Wars: On the Front Lines
  106. Databank title.png dwarf spider droid in the Databank (content now obsolete; backup link)

External links[]