Industrial Light & Magic, or ILM, is the visual effects company responsible for much of the visual effects in the Star Wars films. It was founded by George Lucas in 1975, as part of Lucasfilm Limited. ILM have also been responsible for the effects on over 300 other films, including the Jurassic Park series, the Back to the Future trilogy, the Harry Potter films, the Indiana Jones franchise, the Star Trek films, the Pirates of the Caribbean film series, the many films of the Marvel Cinematic Universe, they did the animation for the film rango, the 2011 film Super 8, and the 2018 film Ready Player One.
After George Lucas made the hit movie American Graffiti, he worked on a space opera he called The Star Wars, which was then purchased by 20th Century Fox. Lucas intended to create special effects that had never been done before. However, Fox's in-house special effects department had been shut down because of costs and the publics interest in more realistic looking films. Lucas then decided to create his own effects company. His first choice was Douglas Trumbull, responsible for the photographical effects in 2001: A Space Odyssey. As Trumbull was doing Steven Spielberg's Close Encounters of the Third Kind, he instead recommended Lucas his assistant, John Dykstra. Dykstra then assembled a crew of 75 college students, artists and engineers.
Gary Kurtz bough to crew to work on a warehouse in Van Nuys, California. Looking for a name that would disguise the warehouse's function and suggest it was simply in the business of wholesaling electronic components rather than making movies, Lucas came up with Industrial Light and Magic. In July of 1975, the company was born.
Star Wars workEdit
ILM's first film was Star Wars (called The Star Wars at first). Many at the recently founded company (then jokingly nicknamed "The Country Club") were not sure the new groundbreaking special effects would ever work. The working environment was chaotic and unorthodox: when Fox executives visited the crew to see their progress, one of the employees was wearing a fish-head mask, the artists used an improvised slide to plunge into a swimming pool built in a container, and Dykstra threw a refrigerator from the warehouse's roof "because we wanted to know how it would sound." The artists spent their days smoking marijuana and trying to find relief from the hot environment in bathtubs. Most of the $1 million Lucas lent to the company was spent on equipment, such as miniatures and the Dykstraflex motion control camera — a technology later crucial for scenes such as the Battle of Yavin.
When Lucas returned to California after ending principal photography, ILM was in worse shape than ever before. Except for the escape pod being released from Tantive IV, Lucas found all the completed effects to be unsalvageable. Adding this to the troublesome shooting, most doubted Star Wars would ever reach theaters, and Fox nearly terminated production. Lucas decided to take direct control of the company, supervising the effects work daily. The battle scenes were mostly directly copied from dogfights taken from World War II movies such as Tora! Tora! Tora! which Lucas used as reference.
Once the film was completed, most of the crew at ILM decided to stay, but Dykstra brought some of the artists to form his own company, called Apogee.
- John Dykstra founded ILM, leading a team that included Richard Edlund, Dennis Muren, and future director Joe Johnston.
- Edwin Catmull's Pixar was at first the computer graphics department of ILM.
- The famous digital artist Juan-Luis Sanchez worked for ILM between 2001 and 2006, during this time working on both Star Wars: Episode II Attack of the Clones and Star Wars: Episode III Revenge of the Sith.
- Jai Natarajan was the technical director who worked on The Phantom Menace.
- Steve Williams was also an animator for ILM.
- Masi Oka worked at ILM before becoming an actor.
Although ILM primarily worked on Star Wars projects, they also had a hand in some Star Trek projects, including Star Trek II: Wrath of Khan. Mark Hamill, upon discovering this during production of Return of the Jedi, jokingly referred to them as traitors, with Lucas stating that it was a business.
In 2010, ILM allowed the show The Amazing Race to film at their complex. They set up a challenge for the contestants on the show, which involved the characters of Ponds, Cody, and Padmé Amidala from The Clone Wars.
- The Star Wars Album
- The Jedi Master's Quizbook
- "Looking At Lucasfilm"—The Lucasfilm Fan Club Magazine 1
- "Star Wars 10th Anniversary Convention!!"—The Lucasfilm Fan Club Magazine 1
- "Inside ILM: The Art of Special Effects"—The Lucasfilm Fan Club Magazine 1
- "Inside ILM: Visual Effects Design"—The Lucasfilm Fan Club Magazine 2
- "Star Tours: 'The Ultimate Adventure' is Still the Ultimate Ride at Disneyland"—The Lucasfilm Fan Club Magazine 2
- "Warwick Davis: An Unlikely Hero"—The Lucasfilm Fan Club Magazine 4
- "Inside ILM: Creating the Magic of Willow"—The Lucasfilm Fan Club Magazine 4
- "Inside ILM"—The Lucasfilm Fan Club Magazine 6
- "Boba Fett: Mystery Man in Not-So-Shining Armor"—Star Wars Galaxy Magazine 1
- The Secrets of Star Wars: Shadows of the Empire
- Empire of Dreams
- Creating the Worlds of Star Wars: 365 Days
- The Art and Making of Star Wars: The Old Republic
- The Making of Star Wars
- The Making of The Empire Strikes Back
- The Making of Return of the Jedi
- "Launch Pad"—Star Wars Insider 146
- Star Wars Rebels: The Visual Guide
- "Cowboy Jedi"—Star Wars Insider 152
- "A Trip to the Light Side"—Star Wars Insider 152
- "Blaster"—Star Wars Insider 152