To humans, the clone trooper's armor appears white overall, but to Kaminoans, clone trooper armor has many colors because they see in the Ultra-violet spectrum of light. This is also the same in the case of their homes and other buildings. Phase I armor was later replaced by Phase II clone trooper armor as the Clone Wars progressed.
With some design assistance from Jango Fett, the basic armor design became composed of twenty form-fitting plates of lightweight plastoid-alloy composite, sealed to a black bodysuit and weighed just under forty kilograms. Because the armor would be used by an army of physically identical clones, only one size was needed. It loosely resembled Mandalorian shock trooper armor, as a result of Jango's participation in its design. The austere sensibilities of Kaminoan society resulted in the blindingly pristine white state of each set of armor, although command units originally had stripes of different colors, depending on their rank (yellow meaning commander, red meaning captain, blue meaning lieutenant, and green meaning sergeant). However, as the Clone Wars progressed, the colorized markings began to identify the troopers with specific units. The helmets usually had fins on the top.
As the Clone Wars progressed, some troopers customized their armor to show their individuality with items such as visors, rangefinders, pauldrons, kamas, enhanced communications gear, and jetpacks. A light source could be attached to the helmets to illuminate dark areas. Some troopers even painted unique designs on their armor and helmets according to personal tastes.
The armor was heavy, uncomfortable, and not very well liked by clone troopers. Hence it being often referred to by non-clone GAR personnel as a "body bucket". Its inconvenience was due to the Kaminoans' lack of knowledge of Human anatomy. It did, however, have coolant systems to prevent overheating, and also included enhanced breathing filters inside the T-visor. The armor could take some modular attachments, like a bacta pack for a medic or small flamethrower for Advanced Recon Commandos. The armor suit also resisted vacuum environments, allowing the trooper to continue to fight outside of spacecraft for a short time (though recovery was needed).
Some armor, depending on what planet the trooper was stationed, were customized to fit the planet's conditions. For example, water planets such as Glee Anselm had water resistant armor, and advanced breathing equipment, for underwater, along with fins attached to the boots. The armor of some troopers had symbols to designate the squad that they were in.
During the later part of the Clone Wars, it was mainly replaced by Phase II armor. However, some clones chose to keep either some, or all of the elements of their Phase I armor, atleast until order 66, such as the ARC troopers who killed master Sev. 
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