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"How are you here?"
"Same as you. My father spent several intimate minutes with my mother, and drowned neither me nor my sister when we were born."
Wyl Lark and Palal Seedia[1]

Padmé Amidala gives birth to twins, Luke and Leia

Reproduction was the biological process in which a new life form was generated from one or more parent lifeforms. Sex could result in reproduction, although copulation was not always for that purpose. Some species gave birth, and others spawned or hatched their offspring. New life could also be produced through cloning and magick.

Reproductive practices[]

Conception and delivery[]

"My sister just had a baby, her first. That's the only reason I hesitated before accepting your invitation. It's put me in a mind to think about the future in a different sort of way than I usually do."
"My mother told me that she had a similar shift in her thinking after I was born. And I imagine that I will, too, however my child comes to me."
"Sola has no interest in a partner. It's normal enough on Naboo. I think I would like what my parents have, though. Or some version of it."
―Senator Padmé Amidala and Queen Breha Organa, discussing reproductive options[2]

Among some species, such as humans, reproduction often involved a pair of beings conceiving a child together as biological parents.[3] For instance, Lyra and Galen Erso were lovers and spouses who conceived a child, Jyn, and Lyra delivered Jyn on the planet Vallt.[4] Senator Padmé Amidala of the planet Naboo became pregnant during the Clone Wars with her husband, Jedi Knight Anakin Skywalker, as the father. She gave birth to twins, Luke Skywalker and Leia Organa.[5] Beings could also choose to have a child without a sexual partner, such as Amidala's sister, Sola Naberrie, who delivered a daughter, Ryoo Naberrie.[2]

Some humanoid species were capable of conceiving hybrid offspring with members of other species. Shaeeah Lawquane, Jek Lawquane,[6] and Jacen Syndulla all had human fathers and Twi'lek mothers.[7] Humans could also reproduce with Theelins,[8] Mirialans,[9] and Espirions; the latter resulted in a hybrid species on Alderaan, Alder-Espirions.[10] Pairings of the Quarrens and Mon Calamari species could also produce hybrids.[11]

Conception did not guarantee that the pregnancy would result in a birth. On the desolate planet Parnassos, atmospheric impurities or poor nutrition due to scarce resources among the warrior clan Scyre led to decreases in conceptions, and most pregnancies never made it to term. Resource limitations also led to childbearing restrictions in the city Arratu Station.[12]

Sentient beings called midwives[4] or midwife droids could assist with births, which might take place in a maternity ward[13] or birthing chamber.[14] By the time of the Clone Wars, a rumor on Vallt held that the human women of Coruscant no longer carried or delivered their own progeny and hired others to do it for them. However, during his imprisonment and subsequent questioning as to whether he was the father of Lyra's child, Coruscant resident Galen Erso disputed this.[4]

Following Padmé Amidala's death after giving birth to twins, Breha and Bail Organa adopted her daughter, Leia.

Death could occur during childbirth.[5] Queen Breha and Senator Bail Organa of the planet Alderaan adopted Leia Organa shortly after her birth, in part because Breha could not safely carry a pregnancy due to the loss of her heart and lungs, which were replaced with pulmonodes. Bail and Breha told Leia that both of her biological parents had died, her birth father in one of the last battles of the Clone Wars and her badly-injured birth mother shortly after her birth;[3] however, only the latter was true. The other twin, Luke, was adopted by the couple Owen Lars and Beru Whitesun Lars.[5]

The Mon Calamari spawned their offspring, producing many more in their lifetimes than humans.[15] The Orishen species reproduced through two parents; each parent birthed one of their two children, and then the parents died, ensuring that the number of Orishen never grew.[16] Some species, such as the Neimoidians, were born as grubs and forced to compete over a limited food supply.[17] Others hatched from eggs, such as the Geonosians, who all came from a single hive queen.[18] Members of the Vintian species went into mating smelts several years apart.[19]

A species of frog-like anthropoids reproduced via external fertilization, in which the female laid eggs which needed to be fertilized by a male.[20] After hatching, tadpoles would emerge from the egg.[21]

Creatures such as the tibidees of the[22] mountainous planet[23] Stygeon Prime used mating calls to find reproductive partners.[22] After copulation, females of the blurrg species ate their male mates.[24] Tauntauns usually ran while in labor, and had difficulties when confined while giving birth.[25]

Other ways of creating life[]

Shmi Skywalker, a human female, carried and gave birth to Anakin Skywalker. However, he did not have a biological father, and Shmi did not know how she came to have a child by herself. Jedi Master Qui-Gon Jinn suspected that Anakin may have somehow been conceived within Shmi by the midi-chlorians that connected all life to the Force.[26] Anakin was later told by Darth Sidious that a Dark Lord of the Sith, Darth Plagueis, could use the dark side to influence midi-chlorians to create life or prevent death.[5]

A Kaminoan cloning facility

Cloning was a process in which the DNA of one lifeform was copied to produce genetically identical individuals. Prior to the Invasion of Naboo, the Kaminoans cloned the human bounty hunter Jango Fett, resulting in the eventual creation of the Grand Army of the Republic.[27] The clones were grown in hatcheries on the planet Kamino, and were genetically altered to accelerate their growth rate[28] and to be more compliant to orders.[27] To further ensure their compliance with Order 66, their brains contained a behavioral modification biochip.[29]

On Dathomir, the Dathomirian witch Falta used magick to create for herself a daughter, Yenna, within a pod that served as the opposite of a burial pod. Falta refused to tell Mother Talzin, leader of the Nightsisters, the secrets of her daughter's creation.[30]

Sexual activities[]

"A second-year I'd been having on-and-off relations with found out about the third-year I was also having on-and-off relations with and apparently neither of them knew about the 'off' part. It was drama, there was lots of yelling, and neither of them seemed sympathetic when I explained that it's not my fault I'm so damn irresistible."
―Archaeologist Chelli Lona Aphra, regarding a three-way lovers' quarrel[31]

Shara Bey and Kes Dameron after spending the night together following the Battle of Endor.

Sentient beings could be interested in having sexual or romantic relationships with only a gender besides their own, with multiple genders,[3] or with only their own gender;[32] they could also have no interest in sex or romance.[33] Interests related to other sentient species also varied, such as some humanoids finding only other humanoids appealing.[3] Some individuals, such as the pilot Leox Gyasi, did not experience sexual desires, but chose to perform sexual activities at times in spite of their lack of drive to do so.[19]

As the Jedi Order required its members to avoid emotional attachments, falling in love and pursuing a romantic relationship was not permitted,[27] and celibacy was a common practice.[19] However, interpretations of the Jedi Code varied on the matter of casual sex without emotional attachments.[34] During the High Republic Era relationships involving Jedi were less rare, especially amongst padawans. This included relationships between Jedi, such as the relationship between Avar Kriss and Elzar Mann. While commonly limited to padawans, some Jedi would continue having relationships as they grew older, this was notably seen with Elzar Mann's relationship with the coordinator of the Republic Fair, Samera Ra-oon[35]. Another notable example was the Jedi Rael Averross who during the time before the Clone Wars, was known to have casual sex with women he knew.[36]

Among the Galactic Empire's military personnel, cadets in the Imperial Academy system were forbidden from forming romantic or sexual relationships with each other in accordance with their oath of loyalty to the Empire.[37] Later in their Imperial careers, the manual of decorum made clear that sexual activities were to be kept discreet; the Empire additionally had family initiatives that discouraged non-reproductive pairings. Imperial Loyalty Officers such as Sinjir Rath Velus would learn the identities of their subjects' sexual companions in order to more effectively conduct interrogations.[16] The euphemistic phrase "off-base, recreation" was logged as a location when Imperial officers were in actuality seeking sexual companions in cantinas or visiting extramarital lovers. Popular locations for these activities included the Octagon in Ryloth's capital city, Lessu, and the underworld[38] at the city-covered world Coruscant.[39]

Behind the scenes[]

Although the 2002 film Star Wars: Episode II Attack of the Clones established that the Jedi Order members couldn't marry or have children,[27] Star Wars creator George Lucas explained that despite their monastic regime, the Jedi were permitted to have sexual intercourse as long they didn't form attachments or possessive relationships.[40]



Notes and references[]

  1. Victory's Price
  2. 2.0 2.1 Queen's Shadow
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Leia, Princess of Alderaan
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Catalyst: A Rogue One Novel
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Star Wars: Episode III Revenge of the Sith
  6. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "The Deserter"
  7. Rebels-mini-logo.png Star Wars Rebels – "Family Reunion – and Farewell"
  8. Star Wars Character Encyclopedia: Updated and Expanded
  9. Force Collector
  10. Princess Leia 4
  11. "A Recipe for Death"—Tales from a Galaxy Far, Far Away: Aliens: Volume I
  12. Phasma
  13. Darth Vader (2020) 5
  14. Aftermath: Empire's End
  15. Rogue One: A Star Wars Story novelization
  16. 16.0 16.1 Aftermath: Life Debt
  17. Star Wars: Absolutely Everything You Need to Know
  18. StarWars-DatabankII.png Queen Karina the Great in the Databank (backup link)
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 The High Republic: Into the Dark
  20. The-Mandalorian-logo.png The Mandalorian – "Chapter 10: The Passenger"
  21. The-Mandalorian-logo.png The Mandalorian – "Chapter 11: The Heiress"
  22. 22.0 22.1 Rebels-mini-logo.png Star Wars Rebels – "Rise of the Old Masters"
  23. StarWars-DatabankII.png Stygeon Prime in the Databank (backup link)
  24. The-Mandalorian-logo.png The Mandalorian – "Chapter 1: The Mandalorian"
  25. "She Will Keep Them Warm"—From a Certain Point of View: The Empire Strikes Back
  26. Star Wars: Episode I The Phantom Menace
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 Star Wars: Episode II Attack of the Clones
  28. StarWars.com Star Wars: Episode II Attack of the Clones on StarWars.com (backup link) (slide 14 caption)
  29. TCW mini logo.jpg Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Orders"
  30. "Bug"—The Clone Wars: Stories of Light and Dark
  31. Doctor Aphra: An Audiobook Original
  32. Aftermath
  33. Galaxy's Edge: Black Spire
  34. Master & Apprentice
  35. The High Republic: The Rising Storm
  36. Master & Apprentice
  37. Lost Stars
  38. Lords of the Sith
  39. StarWars-DatabankII.png Coruscant Guard in the Databank (backup link)
  40. George Lucas: 'I'm still 25' (2002-05-15). BBC News. news.bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on October 18, 2002.