- "A very remarkable woman."
"She is indeed."
- ―Anakin Skywalker and Obi-Wan Kenobi
Satine Kryze was a human female Mandalorian duchess and the pacifistic leader of the New Mandalorians and the planet Mandalore during the Clone Wars. She had at least one sister, Bo-Katan Kryze, and a nephew, Korkie Kryze. Kryze was an ambitious and powerful woman, allied with several high profile politicians in the Galactic Senate such as Orn Free Taa, Kin Robb and Padmé Amidala. Kryze was close friends with Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi, who protected her during the Mandalorian Civil War, and she later became acquainted with Padawan Ahsoka Tano. Later deposed by the rogue Sith Lord Maul, Kryze died in Kenobi's arms during the Mandalorian civil war, impaled by the darksaber before his eyes as part of Maul's revenge against his nemesis but not before proclaiming her love for the Jedi Knight.
- "I remember a time when Jedi were not generals, but peacekeepers."
- ―Satine Kryze
Born on the Outer Rim world of Kalevala, Satine Kryze was the sister of Bo-Katan, and the two shared a nephew named Korkie Kryze, with whom Satine was very close. Sometime prior to the blockade of Naboo, Satine became the Duchess of Mandalore. She rapidly aligned her government with the ideals of the New Mandalorian movement. The New Mandalorians wished to break with Mandalore's brutal past and adopt a more peaceful attitude towards other systems. This was in stark opposition to more conservative-minded individuals on Mandalore who sought to preserve the old ways and continue the Mandalorian custom of waging war for the glory of their world.
Eventually, an insurgency developed against Satine's rule, leading to a civil war for control of Mandalore. The conflict grew so large that it eventually required the intervention of the Jedi Order. The Jedi Council sent Jedi Master Qui-Gon Jinn and his apprentice, Obi-Wan Kenobi, to Mandalore to protect the young duchess from her enemies. The insurgents sent bounty hunters after Satine to eliminate her, forcing the two Jedi to remove the duchess from Mandalore for her own protection. They remained on the run with no certainties about what the next day would bring for nearly a year. At some point, they were attacked by a swarm of venom-mites on Draboon, and Obi-Wan carried Satine to safety. Unfortunately, the chivalric act was tarnished somewhat as the Padawan accidentally fell and dropped her unceremoniously, leaving her with a permanent scar from the fall. During this time, Satine and Obi-Wan began to fall in love and develop feelings for one another.
Eventually, the uprising was defeated, and Satine was allowed to return to Mandalore. The death toll wrought by the war was immense, and the young duchess was left with the difficult task of rebuilding her world. Obi-Wan's commitment to the Order ended their relationship, and he left to continue his Jedi training despite his feelings for her. Both were left heartbroken by their separation, and Kenobi later admitted that, had Satine asked him to stay, he would have left the Jedi Order for her. Kenobi's master Jinn later brought up his relationship with Satine in the months prior to the Invasion of Naboo, while the two were reading over taxation bills submitted to the Galactic Senate as Jinn was suspicious that something was going on with them.
- "A civil war killed most of Satine's people, hence her aversion to violence. When she returned, she took on the difficult task of rebuilding her world alone."
- ―Obi-Wan Kenobi talking to Anakin Skywalker about Satine's past
After Kenobi and Jinn left Mandalore, Satine gradually rebuilt following the damages caused by the war. The considerable number of deaths had left Satine with a fierce hatred of violence, and she became a staunch pacifist. She reformed her government with several Ministers, a cabinet which was led by a Prime Minister. By the time of the Clone Wars, the position was occupied by Almec. Under her rule, Mandalore prospered and turned into a modern and peaceful society. However, Satine's reforms were actively opposed by a group of conservatives known as the Death Watch, which formed from the last remaining insurgents of the civil war. These insurgents had been banished to the Mandalorian moon of Concordia, where they secretly rebuilt their strength to overthrow the duchess and reclaim Mandalore. Aware of the Death Watch's activities, Satine assigned several officials she trusted, such as Prime Minister Almec and Concordia Governor Pre Vizsla, to investigate and root out the movement.
The Clone WarsEdit
- "But why target me?"
"You lead the Council of Neutral Systems, thus you threaten the Separatists' goals. Take it as a compliment. Someone very powerful is working towards your downfall."
- ―Satine Kryze and Pre Vizsla
When the Clone Wars erupted between the Galactic Republic and the Confederacy of Independent Systems, many worlds were forced to choose sides. However, Satine made sure that Mandalore was neutral and continued to prosper. She then became leader of the Council of Neutral Systems, a Galactic Senate conglomerate of 1,500 star systems who wished to stay out of the conflict. However, rumors that Satine was building an army to fight for the Separatists, and a terrorist attack on a Jedi Cruiser by a man wearing Mandalorian armor, forced the Jedi Council to send Obi-Wan Kenobi to investigate.
- "Every one of my people is as trustworthy as I am."
- ―Duchess Satine Kryze to Obi-Wan Kenobi
Receiving Kenobi in the throne room of the Sundari palace, Satine, Prime Minister Almec and Senator Tal Merrik assured Kenobi that they had nothing to do with that attack. Satine then accompanied Kenobi on tour of Sundari, telling him of a group called Death Watch. During their walk, a bomb went off at the Memorial Shrine. Satine and Kenobi found the symbol of Death Watch that had been left by the bomber. Satine and Kenobi were then confronted by the bomber, but watched as he committed suicide. Satine comforted him as he died.
Satine then accompanied Kenobi and the bomber's body to Concordia to meet with its governor, Pre Vizsla. Satine allowed Kenobi to investigate the mines to see if they were inactive while she had dinner with Vizsla. However, she was then contacted by Kenobi, who had been captured by the Death Watch. Satine went to the mine, where she rescued Kenobi from the Death Watch.
As they made their escape, Satine and Kenobi were confronted by more Death Watch soldiers. She threw a rock at one, allowing Kenobi to defeat one of the soldiers. Satine then watched as Kenobi confronted the leader, who revealed himself to be Governor Vizsla. After Kenobi defeated Vizsla, he and Satine escaped before their rockets found them. Satine soon spoke with Almec and Merrik about the Death Watch.
She refused to believe that the Death Watch was being backed by the Separatists. Satine was still in favor of keeping Mandalore out of the war, despite Kenobi's concerns.
Aboard the CoronetEdit
- "I'll take care of this, Obi-Wan. You, go find your girlfriend."
"Yes, right .… No! Anakin! She's not my…"
- ―Anakin Skywalker and Obi-Wan Kenobi
Satine then had to travel to the Senate to discuss her place in the war, departing Mandalore aboard her personal vessel Coronet. She invited several senators to accompany her on the aircraft, including the representative of her own homeworld, Tal Merrick of Kalevala. Kin Robb, herself a member of the Council of Neutral Systems, Onaconda Farr and Orn Free Taa were the other dignitaries. The ship also played host to Kenobi's former Padawan, Jedi Knight Anakin Skywalker, and a small detachment of clone troopers who were to act as additional security during the voyage. However, she and Kenobi argued over the ethics of getting involved in war until Merrik suggested they go to dinner. The dinner was interrupted by an attack by an assassin probe and its probe killers. Whilst the other senators struggled to keep the droids away from them, Satine stood back to back with Kenobi and defended herself expertly with a small but powerful droid deactivator, justifying it by stating that despite being a pacifist, she was willing and able to defend herself.
After the probes were defeated, Satine objected to Kenobi's use of a single probe killer in exposing the traitor. When the last spider tried to attack Satine, she was saved when Kenobi destroyed the last probe. Unfortunately, Satine was then held hostage by her former advisor and now traitor, Merrik. Satine watched as Merrik murdered the captain and his bridge crew, calling him a horrid monster. When Merrik contacted the Separatist Alliance, boarding ships were sent, and dozens of droids flooded the decks. As Satine and Merrik made their way to the boarding ships, Kenobi arrived to rescue her. However, Merrik rigged the ship to blow. As Merrik prepared to board, Satine confessed that she had always loved Kenobi since they first met. Though Kenobi did not think it was the time, he too confessed that he would have left the Jedi Order if she had asked him to. As Merrik was disgusted by this, Satine called him a slug, drove her heel into his foot and took his gun, remarking that "Slugs are so often trod upon." However, Merrik said that he would still win without Satine, saying he would blow up the ship and kill all aboard. Satine held him at gunpoint as Merrik taunted her, stating that if she did shoot him, then she would undermine every pacifist ideal she held dear. Confident in his victory, Merrick dared either of them to strike and prove themselves a cold-blooded killer. Skywalker, however, killed Merrik before he pushed the button. Satine arrived safely back on Coruscant and bid farewell to Kenobi.
Defending Mandalore's neutralityEdit
- "War is intolerable. We have been deceived into thinking that we must be a part of it. I say the moment we committed to fighting, we already lost."
- ―Duchess Satine Kryze, to the Galactic Senate
When Satine arrived at the Senate, she was soon informed of the Republic's plans to send troops in order to stop the Death Watch. She was also shocked by Deputy Minister Jerec's support for the Republic plans and his assassination by Death Watch. Satine was outraged at this and opposed the idea, since it would not only take away Mandalore's independence but make them a target of the Separatists. While traveling back to the Senate, an assassin for Death Watch sabotaged Satine's ship, killing her drive, Aramis. The duchess narrowly escaped with her life.
At last, Kryze safely arrived back at the Senate, where she conferred with Palpatine. When the meeting finished, Satine stormed away from a comforting Obi-Wan before being informed by Senator Padmé Amidala that the Senate had passed the order of sending troops to Mandalore. Frightened and horrified, Kryze then heard of her friend, Davu Golec in the Ministry of Intelligence having a hologram capable of swaying the senate. This led her to the lower levels of Coruscant, where her friend gave her the hologram. The Death Watch assassin promptly murdered Golec and framed her of the crime.
On the runEdit
- "If you see this woman, report her to local authorities."
- ―A clone trooper talking about Satine
Satine, now a fugitive, contacted Obi-Wan Kenobi and instructed him that the hologram must be presented to the Senate. Kenobi came to her aid and discussed what should be done. The assassin sent by Death Watch then attacked the duo before being fought off by Kenobi. Kryze quickly gave Kenobi the hologram, and he dashed to the Senate, ready for Amidala to present the transmission to the Senators. When Padmé Amidala presented the hologram to the Senate, Kryze was released from any charges and returned to Mandalore, but not before saying her thanks and goodbye to her Jedi hero, Obi-Wan Kenobi.
Not long after her ordeal, Satine was present in the senate chamber for a speech made by Senator Padmé Amidala in opposition to a bill which would increase military spending at the expense of social services. Amidala's speech, a touching and passionate defense of basic social amenities which suffered as a result of the war, received rousing support from many of those present, including Satine.
Black Market CrisisEdit
- "I know our decision to stay neutral has caused distress in the Senate. But for many here, the fallout from your war has been so much."
- ―Duchess Satine, to Padmé Amidala
While Senator Amidala visited Sundari on a diplomatic mission, the two uncovered the terrifying truth of corruption lying deep within the market. They found a group of smugglers led by the Moogan Tee Va, who had inadvertently poisoned a shipment of tea with slabin. After uncovering and arresting the leadership behind this, Satine had the warehouse used in the operation burned to the ground as a warning and an example of what fate corruption would meet on Mandalore.
Corruption in AlmecEdit
- "You must know by now that I didn't bring you here just to teach. I knew something was amiss, but I had no one to trust. I thought if I brought a Jedi, especially a friend of Senator Amidala's, we could solve this mystery together."
- ―Satine, to Ahsoka Tano
As Padmé left. Satine asked whether a Jedi could come and teach Mandalore's children of the terror of corruption. Padmé sent her friend, the Jedi Padawan Ahsoka Tano, to teach the children. While Ahsoka taught the class of children, including Kryze's nephew, Korkie, they uncovered the terrifying truth of Prime Minister Almec's betrayal and deep corruption.
Almec, one step ahead of the youths, had his personal guards arrest Satine in an attempt to force her to sign a confession of her being corrupt. Several of the duchess' personal guards were slain attempting to protect her, and she was subjected to brutal shocks from a shock collar in an attempt to make her sign. When the duchess spat that she would die before she signed the confession, Almec tried a different approach in the form of subjecting her nephew Korkie to the collar instead. Luckily, Tano arrived and fought off Almec. Satine then retook the upper hand and sentenced Almec to prison for corruption and treason.
The death of Onaconda FarrEdit
Later in the war, Kryze attended the funeral of the Rodian Senator Onaconda Farr, who had been assassinated by his aide Lolo Purs. Farr had been a member of the Council of Neutral Systems alongside Satine as well as a close friend and mentor to Padmé. Flanked by two Journeyman Protector guards, Kryze solemnly listened to a eulogy spoken by another of Farr's Rodian aides — Silood. After the eulogy, the mourners watched silently as Farr's body was loaded onto a Consular-class cruiser and ferried back to his homeworld Rodia.
Obi-Wan Kenobi's fake deathEdit
In 20 BBY, Obi-Wan Kenobi purportedly perished at the hands of the bounty hunter Rako Hardeen. A funeral for the fallen Jedi Master was hosted in the Jedi Temple on Coruscant. The funeral was attended by many of Kenobi's friends and comrades, including Satine. During the procession, Satine, who was stood next to Amidala, Tano, and Jedi Master Plo Koon, was utterly distraught at the apparent death of the man she loved. Unbeknown to those outside of the Jedi High Council, Kenobi had survived his encounter with Hardeen and was impersonating the assassin in the hopes of bringing a plot to assassinate Supreme Chancellor Sheev Palpatine to the light. Upon completing his mission, Obi-Wan's survival was made public.
Fall of MandaloreEdit
Toward the end of the Clone Wars, the renegade Sith Lord Maul and his apprentice Savage Opress came to Mandalore with the help of the crime families. The two slaughtered hundreds of the Mandalore public on the streets, tearing through the capital. Kryze and her government were captured and placed in jail. Kryze was rescued by her nephew and escaped to the border of the Capital, where she was able to contact the Jedi Council. Satine was then captured again and brought back to the cells. Obi-Wan Kenobi came to Mandalore against the will of the Council, and attempted to rescue Satine; however, once again, the Duchess was imprisoned—but only for a short time.
- "Remember my dear Obi-Wan, I loved you always... I always will."
- ―Satine's last words to Kenobi
Kryze and Kenobi were brought before Maul in the Sundari throne room, where Satine was made to kneel beside the throne. Having bested and executed Pre Vizsla in honorable combat, Maul was now the secret leader of the Mandalorian people. Maul taunted Kenobi, lifting and choking Satine with the Force while Obi-Wan watched unable to help. Praying on the Jedi's dark emotions, Maul hoped to see his old adversary break. Satine, still under Maul's grasp, begged Obi-Wan to not listen to the Sith Lord's words, only to be silenced by Savage Opress. Obi-Wan assured Maul that the Sith could kill him, but his resolve would never be broken.
Kenobi tried to identify with Maul, bringing up the Sith Lord's horrific past, which angered the Sith Lord. Maul remarked that the perfect tool for his vengeance was now available to him, and that he could finally watch the Jedi Master suffer as he had. Drawing the Darksaber, Maul pulled Satine towards him with the Force and impaled the Duchess as Obi-Wan watched in despair. As Maul dropped the Duchess' dying body to the floor, Kenobi rushed to her side. Holding the side of his face, Satine professed her unyielding love for Obi-Wan in her dying breath, passing away in his arms.
- "You named your weapon after my sister? The former ruler of Mandalore?"
"It was a series of bad decisions, okay?"
- ―Bo-Katan and Sabine Wren on the latter's use of her name
After Satine's death, Obi-Wan was transported to the royal prison. However, his escort was intercepted by Bo-Katan, who helped him escape off world in the hopes that he would inform the Republic of Maul's secret rule. As he left, Kenobi came to the realisation that Bo was Satine's sister, and apologised for her loss. Later in the war, Obi-Wan questioned Anakin Skywalker about the nature of his connection to Senator Amidala. Hoping to get Anakin to open up about his feelings, Obi-Wan resonated with his former student, reminding him that he had harboured feelings for Kryze prior to her untimely demise.
In the years preceding the Battle of Yavin, Maul owned a painting of Kryze hung above a shrine where he kept the Darksaber in the Nightsister lair on Dathomir. The painting, which had once hung in the Sundari palace throne room, was heavily defaced by the time it had fallen into Maul's possession. Maul ultimately fought a brief final lightsaber duel with Kenobi and died in the Jedi Master's arms.
Years before the early rebellion against the Galactic Empire, a young cadet at the Imperial Academy of Mandalore named Sabine Wren developed a superweapon that became the Arc Pulse Generator. Wren nicknamed the weapon "the Duchess" after Satine. She developed the weapon to target beskar alloy used in Mandalorian armor and disintegrate the soldier inside, taking it as a challenge to her abilities since beskar was widely regarded as indestructible. After finding out that the Empire not only had weaponized her design but tested it on her people, Sabine was horrified. She sabotaged the original prototype and destroyed the remaining plans but then found out the Empire was able to recreate it. In 1 BBY, Satine's sister Bo, who was naturally disgusted of the Duchess especially as it was named after Satine, viewing it as an insult to her late sister's memory, fought the Imperial occupation of Mandalore, and with the backing of Clan Wren, the Journeyman Protectors and several other clans, she took the Darksaber and claimed the title of Mand'alor to honor her sister.
At some point after her death, the Drearian Defense Conglomerate named a model of its Defender sporting blaster pistol after the late Duchess, the Satine's Lament. One of these was put to good use by the daughter of Kryze's friend Amidala, Leia Organa.
In 0 BBY, while talking with the Force spirit of Qui-Gon Jinn, Kenobi blamed himself for having failed every person he truly loved, such as Kryze, but Jinn comforted him by reassuring that the responsibility for his failure was Jinn's own for not having completed Kenobi's training.
Personality and traitsEdit
- "For generations, my ancestors fought proudly as warriors against the Jedi. Now, that woman tarnishes the very name Mandalorian. Defend her if you will!"
- ―Pre Vizsla, to Obi-Wan Kenobi
Satine Kryze was 1.77 meters tall and had blond hair, blue eyes, and pale skin. Kryze was a staunch pacifist who believed that the very concept of "fighting for peace" was an unacceptable contradiction. Her beliefs came from her experiences during the civil war which killed most of her people during the early days of her reign. The harrowing experience led her to invoke a strong course of pacifism once the war ended, leading her people through a period of peace and prosperity that Mandalore had never before experienced. Kryze was so devoted to her ideals that she was willing to die for them, and she opposed Mandalore's entry into the Clone Wars, advocating a position of neutrality. Despite her commitment to peace, Kryze always carried a deactivator with her, claiming that her pacifist views didn't stop her from defending herself.
Kryze was very kind toward her people and was distraught when dozens of Mandalorian citizens were killed due to the attacks of Savage Opress and Maul; however, despite her kindness, Satine had turned strict after the uprising. When she was appointed as the Duchess of Mandalore, Satine turned to pacifism and exhibited these traits throughout the Clone Wars. She believed strongly in her pacifist views, as shown when she fought for her rights in the Old Republic's Senate. Kryze was strong willed and ambitious for Mandalore. She constantly believed in a bright future for her planet.
Skills and abilitiesEdit
Satine was a strong-willed and gifted politician, shown as she held her own in the Senate, where she was cross-examined by Public Speaker Mas Amedda. Kryze was gifted at public speaking and showed strength in the field of analyzing her surroundings. Though she greatly disliked the idea of violence, she could fight fairly well, as she fought off a Death Watch soldier in a matter of seconds, each of whom were peerless warriors in their own right. Kryze could evidently fly aircraft; when Obi-Wan Kenobi attempted to save her from Mandalore, she was ready to take control of the ship, but did not have time. Also, as shown while aboard the Coronet, Satine could use a deactivator as she fought alongside Obi-Wan Kenobi. Despite her obvious fighting ability, Kryze abhorred violence, as shown when she had the opportunity to kill Tal Merrik. Kryze was also very intelligent and resourceful as shown when she was able to correctly program the controls in the mines to release Kenobi.
Behind the scenesEdit
- "I think characters are interesting when you care about what they do and where they're going. Satine's place in the Star Wars universe definitely has strong roots in the story because of her past with Obi-Wan, but she can also stand on her own as a character so that you want to see what she'll do next. That's what drew me to her."
- ―Anna Graves on the character of Satine
Satine Kryze first appeared in "The Mandalore Plot," the twelfth episode of the second season of the animated television series Star Wars: The Clone Wars. The episode was directed by Kyle Dunlevy, written by Melinda Hsu and Drew Z. Greenberg, and first aired on January 29, 2010. "The Mandalore Plot" was the first in a trilogy of episodes, which also included "Voyage of Temptation" and "Duchess of Mandalore." Initially, "Voyage of Temptation" was the only planned episode of the trilogy, however, George Lucas and Dave Filoni decided to expand upon the character of Satine and the Mandalore story-arc, leading to the development of the "The Mandalore Plot" and "Duchess of Mandalore."
The idea to give Obi-Wan Kenobi a romantic interest in The Clone Wars came from story editor Henry Gilroy. From the conception of the character the team behind the show always intended to have Satine killed off. Satine's design was based off of unused concept art of Queen Padmé Amidala for Star Wars: Episode I The Phantom Menace illustrated by Iain McCaig. She was inspired by Cate Blanchett, particularly her performance as Queen Elizabeth I, whom she portrayed in Elizabeth and Elizabeth: The Golden Age. Henry Gilroy, who came up with her name, denied she was named after Nicole Kidman's character in Moulin Rouge!, who was the love interest of Ewan McGregor's character. Dave Filoni said he did not realize that initially, and said, "I still wanna question Gilroy about that, because I'm like, 'Come on, really? I mean, out of all the names, really?' It's pretty weird, I'll give you that."
In The Clone Wars, Satine was voiced by Anna Graves. Graves was drawn to the character because, despite her deep connection to the story of Obi-Wan Kenobi, Satine stood out to Graves as someone who wasn't reliant on the narrative of another character to shine. Although initially unaware of the history and culture of the Mandalorians, Graves educated herself upon landing the role. By the time of recording, Graves understood the importance of her role and was "excited to speak in the Concordian dialect." Following Filoni's direction, Graves tried to deliver some of Satine's speeches with the same gravitas as Blanchett's performance as Elizabeth I. She also used the bickering relationship between Princess Leia Organa and Han Solo in Star Wars: Episode V The Empire Strikes Back as a basis for her voice work, wanting the character of Satine to challenge Obi-Wan as much as Organa challenged Solo.
Notes and referencesEdit
- ↑ 1.0 1.1
- ↑ Star Wars: Galactic Atlas
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "The Lawless"
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5
- ↑ 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "The Mandalore Plot"
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Star Wars Rebels: Heroes of Mandalore
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Duchess of Mandalore"
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "The Academy"
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 Star Wars: The Complete Visual Dictionary, New Edition
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Voyage of Temptation"
- ↑ Queen's Peril
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Corruption"
- ↑ Rise of the Separatists
- ↑ Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Pursuit of Peace"
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Senate Murders"
- ↑ Star Wars: Galactic Atlas places the Battle of Mon Cala and the skirmish in Theed to 20 BBY. As "Deception" takes place in between these two events according to , this episode must also take place in 20 BBY.
- ↑ Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Deception"
- ↑ Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Crisis on Naboo"
- ↑ Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Shades of Reason"
- ↑ Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Rise of Clovis"
- ↑ Star Wars Rebels – "Visions and Voices"
- ↑ Star Wars Rebels – "Twin Suns"
- ↑ Ultimate Star Wars
- ↑ "Master and Apprentice"—From a Certain Point of View
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 "The Duchess and the Jedi"—Star Wars Insider 117
- ↑ (slide 4)
- ↑ Star Wars: Are You Ready for the Mandalorians?. IGN (2010-01-28). Archived from the original on May 19, 2020. Retrieved on January 25, 2016.